Some Thoughts on a Simple Explanation of Bessler's Wheel:

Bessler's Wheel Uncovered with an Interpretation of Bessler's Little Book

- A Delayed Gift to the World

Copyright Pioneer day, Tuesday 24 July 2001 Alden E. Park

Permission is granted by the copyright owner for making incidental or noncommercial copies of this complete version of the paper (which includes the front figure).

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29 May 2000 copies distributed to initial reviewers on 30 May 2000 to 13 July 2000

20 January 2001 copies distributed to final reviewers on 23 January 2001 to 10 February 2001

Caution. This technical paper takes an unusual position of sometimes talking about science and religion at the same time. If doing such goes against your religion or your science, then you are cautioned about reading this paper.

Warning. Some things described in this paper are potentially dangerous. People should avoid physical contact with an operating Bessler pendulum, especially the heavy pointed end.


Johann Ernst Elias Bessler (1680 or 1681 - 1745) (also known as Orffyreus for reasons that should be made clear in this paper) wrote in 1717 a book, Poetica Apologia. That book or booklet (Apologia) contained encoded passages that symbolically describe the "perpetual motion" machines that he built which were each covered by a horizontal axle wheel. Bessler built, publicly displayed, allowed tests performed upon, and destroyed four such wheels at the locations: Gera, Draschwitz, Merseberg, and Kassel. I think that each of these wheels contained a single mechanical-power-extraction device that I call a Bessler pendulum. Though the Bessler pendulum was completely enclosed in a wheel to conceal the invention, it was also enclosed for safety reasons and to protect it from dust, moisture, and wind. The energy wasteful sounds and vibrations from the falling weights (hitting the inner rim of their rotating covering wheel) within the Merseburg and Kassel versions of Bessler's wheel were mainly a distraction to help protect the Bessler pendulum invention. My thoughts are based partly on my decoding of the "little book" encoded passages within Apologia. The possibility of decoding these passages was expressed by Mr. John Collins in his 1997 book Perpetual Motion: An Ancient Mystery Solved?. Collins considered that these passages might be very important in understanding the secret of Bessler's 1717 wheel. Collins' apparent belief in the importance of these passages was correct.


Collins built an exceptionally strong or historically authentic case that Bessler's wheel was an actual "perpetual motion" machine (in the 1717 sense used by Bessler) which produced mechanical power. There was much experimental evidence or historical support for Bessler's "perpetual motion" wheels. Many people (during and since the time of Bessler) have held theory to be of greater importance than the experimental evidence produced by Bessler. Many people have not understood the complete theory or misapplied the theory that they did understand. For example, the standard theory typically ignores the idea that mass "points" can have internal rotational kinetic energy which can each be modified by selectively constrained interaction with the relatively large spin two graviton. The higher regard for theory over evidence was so great that it polarized the thinking of many scientists, helped purge the evidences produced by Bessler, and even altered the definition of the term "perpetual motion". Typical modern definitions of perpetual motion machines prohibit such machines from having an external source of power. Bessler claimed that his devices were powered by gravity. Any device which actually is able to repetitively extract mechanical power from an external power source of gravity would thus not be considered to be a perpetual motion device according to such modern definitions.

Bessler was the true mortal inventor of the Bessler pendulum. Collective evidence for this is found in many sources, including my interpretation of a portion of Bessler's writings. Bessler's "little book" was a parable that symbolically discusses the most important secrets within Bessler's wheel, usually from a visual perspective that provides glimpses of the fully operating device within. My interpretation of Bessler's "little book" includes decoding seven levels of hidden chiastic structure. The chiasmus is a literary or poetic form found in many ancient writings including The Holy Bible and The Book of Mormon: Another Testament of Jesus Christ. Bessler's "little book" is also surrounded by three chiastic levels (shown on the first and last pages of Bessler's Apologia) thus making the Apologia a tenth level extended chiasm. As an example of a fifth level extended chiasm showing opposites, if (1) Bessler could work very (2) hard or with much restraint to keep his (3) little book quite (4) small using (5) compact symbols, then the important (5) decoded symbols after partial expansion can be allowed to become quite (4) large in the (3) big paper written with more (2) ease or rather less restraint by (1) Park. The caution above contains a third level extended chiasm.


My interpretation suggests that Bessler made use of clean unlubricated devices, which I call Orffyrean roller bearings. The standard Orffyrean roller bearing probably contained six small rollers surrounding a larger central roller. Surrounding the six rollers is an Orffyrean sleeve composed of many Orffyrean sleeve wheels. Each small roller is composed of many standard Orffyrean sprocket wheels. Each standard Orffyrean sprocket wheel probably contained six circular-edged lobes. By cooperatively taking turns at weight bearing, these sprocket wheels allowed very low friction through many very small pivots. This was done by means of small circles rolling within sectors of circles of slightly larger radii. The smaller circles had static contact as they rolled without slipping. My thoughts are speculative, because I know of no correctly working model of the Bessler pendulum, nor of the Orffyrean roller bearing, nor of the Orffyrean sprocket wheels. I hope that it will not be long before someone builds these devices. I have tried to give written instructions as well as diagrams in my front figure that describe how to build a working Bessler pendulum. Speculative conditions, for stopping and resuming the torque governor wheel, are specified in this paper. However this paper does not include: (1) the full mechanical details of the sensors (for maximum angles and for near vertical angles), (2) the torque-governor-sprocket-wheel's stopping and resumption mechanisms (which probably uses a pivoting bar and a tube spring, but has mechanisms I do not fully understand), (3) the nature of maintaining an asymmetrical imbalance requiring internal rotation in a single direction (either clockwise or counterclockwise) of the large and small chain-connected sprocket wheels, (4) the related precise method(s) of removing power from working pendula, (5) any proven solution to the Orffyrean sleeve wheels, and (6) a complete physical description addressing precisely why the Bessler pendulum works. I wonder if (by allowing for a slot in the anvil) I should have drawn (in my front figure) the dual pointed anvil even closer to or surrounding the outer edge of the small wheel, so as to possibly allow for greater (though low friction) photon interaction between the two materials containing the rotating nuclear ground states.

Bessler was a phenomenal student of such things as science, mathematics, languages, and mechanics. Among his many skills, he knew how to build clocks, watches, mills, and organs. He also understood smelting and casting. He was certainly capable of building the machine I have described in this paper. Bessler was able to extract power from his dual-pointed anvil-pendulum by making the rotational analog of matter (moment of inertia) appear and disappear at will in a rotationally accelerated physical pendulum environment. He carefully extracted and preserved slight amounts of internal rotational kinetic energy by carefully timing internal-rotational state changes. He did these things with the assistance of his large load-bearing roller bearings which were nearly frictionless. One can visually think of letting go or casting a large diameter fishing reel (without a line) when that light reel end is at the greatest height directly above the pivot point of the physical pendulum, so as to collect the reel's maximum internal rotational kinetic energy. In the nearly frictionless environment provided by Bessler's special roller bearings, the reel (actually the torque-governor wheel, which is like a normal yet enlarged bicycle sprocket wheel, except that its interior mass is almost completely filled in) would still be slowly rotating when the heavy anvil-weight (near the small wheel which is also on the opposite end about the pendulum pivot) comes to a stop at its maximum height. This remaining internal rotational kinetic energy was extracted by stopping this torque governor wheel, so as to increase the angular amplitude of the new wheel-pendulum entity (similar to a very large filled-in bicycle sprocket wheel connected to a smaller filled-in bicycle sprocket wheel by a tight chain). This new wheel-pendulum entity is also firmly attached by its two special roller bearings to the pendulum. The torque-governor wheel is intermediate in size compared to the very large and smaller sprocket wheels in the wheel-pendulum entity.

For the internal rotations and displacements of the nuclei with respect to their atomic "dog huts", there is apparently not gravitational spin symmetry for the nuclei in the anvil (for comparing the anvil going down and up). This asymmetry may be influenced by such things as the proximity to the continually rotating small wheel, the large rotationally accelerating situations within the Bessler pendulum, the anvil "hitting" the bottom of its pendulum cycle, the large spin of the graviton, and the delayed angular momentum received from the torque governor wheel. It appears that the Bessler pendulum forms an unusual angular momentum bridge between the subatomic and the large macroscopic. Assuming the device actually works, the scope of Bessler's invention is nothing short of ingenious if not revelation from God.


Although I consider my attempt to symbolically interpret Bessler's "little book" to be speculative and incomplete, I believe it is an excellent starting point in explaining the restoration of ideas and technology relating to the repeated mechanical extraction of mechanical power from gravity. My paper also refers to other potential modern methods for power extraction and materials processing. Various hybrid technologies are suggested, such as combining the Orffyrean roller bearing technology with either some electromagnetic (EM) over-unity engines or Collins' speculative yin-yang device. My paper also contains a speculative suggestion, based on reasonable evidence, that the sun may produce energy primarily from gravity instead of from hot fusion. One should recall that the common or currently-prevailing scientifically-popular belief that the sun obtains its power from hot fusion is itself theoretical or actually especially speculative in nature as the physical evidence does not support it.

I imagine that when the first modern day versions of Bessler's pendula are successfully simulated or built, we might better understand how Bessler's multi-level "little book" and other things within Apologia should have been interpreted. Collins speculated that the Biblical references contained in Orffyreus' declaration of faith (a separate section of the Apologia) might need to be decoded. I have found that dual symbolic interpretations do apply to these approximately 140 Biblical references, but I discuss very little about them in this paper. In addition to commonly understood meanings, they also either were symbolic of his pendulum or were somehow comparable to his personal situation relative to God. I encourage the readers of this paper to study these scriptural references for greater understanding. Also, there appears to be much further symbolism (related to God and this universe and discoverable within the fully working Bessler pendulum itself) which has only been slightly discussed in this paper.



-1 . . (front figure)

00 . . (blank)

01 . . Some Thoughts on a Simple Explanation of Bessler's Wheel

01 . . . . Caution

01 . . . . Warning

01 . . Abstract

04 . . Contents

06 . . Disclaimers

06 . . References Note

07 . . Some Personal Background

07 . . . . New Mexico

09 . . . . University of New Mexico

10 . . . . University of Colorado

11 . . . . California

12 . . . . Cold Fusion

14 . . . . Infinite Energy

15 . . . . Bessler Wheel

15 . . . . EM Over-Unity Engines

16 . . . . EM and Gravity

18 . . Initial Analysis

21 . . Some Thoughts Regarding Bessler Pendulum Attempt

22 . . An Interpretation of Bessler's Little Book Parable

23 . . . . Literary Forms

24 . . . . The Chiasmus

28 . . . . A Little Book Interpretation

43 . . Analysis of Bessler's Little Book Parable

45 . . . . Orffyrean Technology

47 . . . . Orffyrean Roller

47 . . . . Orffyrean Roller Bearing

50 . . . . Recapitulate

54 . . Real or Thought Experiments

55 . . . . (E4) Constrained Torque Governor Wheel

55 . . . . (E5) Released Torque Governor Wheel

56 . . . . E5 Discussion

58 . . . . (E6) Wheel-pendulum Efficiency

59 . . . . (E7) Orffyrean Roller Bearing Efficiency

59 . . Discussion

60 . . . . Truth Persecution

60 . . . . Joseph Smith, Jun.

62 . . . . Invention Ownership

63 . . . . Internal Rotational States

64 . . . . Scientific Theories/Progress

65 . . . . Chiastic Labels

65 . . . . Numerals

69 . . . . First and Last Chiasms

70 . . Related Spiritual Thoughts

71 . . Discussion Conclusions

71 . . . . Bessler's Little Book Initially Decoded

72 . . . . Single Pendulum in Covering Wheel

72 . . . . Pendulum Details Covered

74 . . . . Bessler Persecuted

74 . . . . World Needs to Build Pendulum

75 . . . . Pendulum Importance

75 . . . . Cold Fusion/Nuclear Reactions

76 . . . . Experiments

76 . . . . Coordination/Cooperation

77 . . . . Physics

79 . . . . Our Sun

80 . . . . Collins' Yin-Yang Device

80 . . . . Good Neighbors

81 . . . . Gospel Message Symbolically in Pendulum

81 . . . . Extended Symbolic Puzzle

81 . . Acknowledgments

83 . . Rights and Use of Information

84 . . References and Notes

89 . . Abbreviations

90 . . Index


This currently speculative paper has no official connection with the United States Government, though I am an employee of such.

This currently speculative paper has no official connection with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, even though I claim to be devoted to the official principles, doctrines, programs, and policies of the Church. For official information on the Church, I suggest that the interested reader visit within which is the official home page of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. I also suggest that the reader should read, study, and ponder the official publications of the Church.

References Note


As the reader studies this paper, I would suggest that the reader have access to the scriptures and to a copy of the fascinating book Perpetual Motion: An Ancient Mystery Solved? by John Collins (1997) Permo Publications; PO Box 2001; Leamington Spa; CV32 6YQ; United Kingdom (UK). If the reader does not have access to the standard works of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the reader might try looking for the scriptures using Internet sites like (or or or or or or The standard works are available in 38 languages. Full book translations of the Book of Mormon are available in 61 languages. Some copies of the Book of Mormon can be purchased for only $2.50 U.S. Persons who are interested in learning more about Jesus Christ can currently get a free copy of The Book of Mormon: Another Testament of Jesus Christ (in English) by calling toll-free 1(888)537-2200 or 1(800)322-8881 (from within the United States and Canada). The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints uses (in English) as The Holy Bible, the Authorized King James Version (with explanatory notes and cross references to the standard works of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints). One can currently get a free copy of The Holy Bible (in English and/or an English copy of The Book of Mormon or several videos or a Spanish copy of The Book of Mormon) by calling toll-free 1(800)453-2900 (from within the United States and Canada). Free downloads from the handheld library archive within are currently available. In the United States or Canada, with a limit of one Bible per household, free copies of both the King James Version of The Holy Bible and The Book of Mormon: Another Testament of Jesus Christ are currently available through -> Basic Beliefs -> Free. One might also want to visit which is John Collins' Internet site and which specifies the Internet site for the magazine Infinite Energy (IE) The Magazine of New Energy Technology. One could order John Collins' book through either of these last two Internet sites. One could also order his book by calling IE at 1(603)228-4516. On 1 November 2000, I bought an extra copy of Collins' book (to loan out to reviewers). I can now also loan out that book to interested people. I have noticed much interest in Collins' book among those reviewers to whom I loaned it. John Collins' first edition book sold out so he should soon have his second edition book available (if it is not already available). For further study, you might also want to borrow copies of the magazine, Infinite Energy, from your local library. If your library does not have a subscription to IE, I understand that all back issues are currently available and the cost is currently quite reasonable. The edited magazine Infinite Energy though not a peer reviewed journal is subject to reader review feedback (Letters to the Editor) and some experimentation review of selected promising technologies (at the IE laboratories and the laboratories of others). This helps keep the cost of IE quite reasonable and helps to prevent budding ideas from being squashed purely by self-blinding overly-rigid conventional dogma. This increases the flow of information at a price of the reader needing to apply some disciplined self-filtering. I consider the need to weed out some articles by my just ignoring them much preferable to the other self-stagnating extreme taken by some prestigious journals in that some have seemed to mandate or define bounds on acceptable scientific theory and experimental results.

Some Personal Background


New Mexico. I (Alden Eugene Park where Alden means "old friend" in Anglo-Saxon) was born on St. Lucy's day, 13 December 1953, at the old St. Joseph Hospital in Albuquerque, Bernalillo, New Mexico, U.S.A. As I was born on a Sunday, my oldest grandfather often referred to me (when I was very young) as his little Jose Domingo in apparent reference to an old friend or acquaintance of his who went by that nickname. (Q0) Where did I acquire some of my training? That grandfather showed me a transformable three-dimensional optical illusion showing many cubes that suddenly switched their inversions when viewed with "proper" study (that based on the yellowing of the paper he had apparently long before then clipped out of something). [Among its many properties, Bessler's final figure in Apologia when viewed "properly" can visually transform into a three-dimensional symbolic entity.] My second grade teacher wrote an interesting comment about me on my report card at the end of second grade, "Alden has a tendancy [sic tendency] to daydream in class. Therefore Alden's work is not started or finished on time. He can do the work when he wants to." I attended the Albuquerque public schools: Los Altos Elementary, Hodgin Elementary, McKinley Junior High, and Del Norte High. I was a Cub Scout in Pack 384 which met at Hodgin Elementary School wherein I somehow attained the Cub Scout rank of Tenderfoot. I have a certificate of this seemingly unusual thing. I think that the Cub Scout program was about to make a "state" transition to the new Arrow of Light badge. However this happened, it allowed me to very quickly attain the rank of Tenderfoot Scout after I joined Boy Scout Troop 169. I learned from the ninth point of the Scout Law that "A Scout is thrifty." I tried to be thrifty with energy and use our resources wisely. With time I built up a large newspaper collection route for recycling and earning money for scouts. I learned from the eleventh point of the Scout Law that "A Scout is clean." [Apparently the Bessler pendulum must operate in a clean environment to remain working as a Bessler pendulum.] I sometimes attended St. Andrew Presbyterian Church. When Troop 169 folded, I joined the newly formed Troop 443 (meeting first at Governor Bent Elementary and later at Del Norte Baptist Church). [It is a sad thing to see any of the world scouting units fold as it generally means that many people are deprived of many good-citizenship building and learning experiences.] I received the rank of Eagle Scout from the Boy Scouts of America during my senior year in high school. As a junior in high school, I won the problem of the week contest at Del Norte (a contest open to all the Del Norte students that particular year but not offered during my other years at the three year high school). When I began high school as a sophomore, I was apparently the worst chess player in the Del Norte chess club but I stuck with it and by the time I was a senior (graduating class of 1971) not only did I make the chess team for the first time, but I was surprised that I qualified as the team's first board. [Bessler went through many failed devices before he was eventually successful. See Collins's book pp. 29, 40. He just stuck with the problem and got help from as many diverse sources of information as possible. See Collins' book pp. 25-29, 44.] One of my teachers wrote in my senior yearbook, "Alden - You made Junior Humanities much more interesting by those QUESTIONS! The Unanswerable Ones - Mrs. Cravens." In elementary school, I enjoyed seeing and listening to George Fischbeck talk about and have fun with science on the educational TV station KNME. He had great popularity among the elementary school students and I was no exception. He was one of my childhood heroes and he drew me his autograph of a "fish" with a back and bubbles. I unfortunately lost the autograph but I still have my "CHANNEL 5 SCIENCE CLUB" certificate containing a similar printed drawing. I also enjoyed listening to him give a special sermon one Sunday at a Boy Scout Camporee, as I recall concerning the subject "Silence is Golden." I thought he had interesting views of both science and religion.


My parents had an effect on my training that I can't measure. Without my asking, my dad (a machinist who had been a sailor during WWII) built for me a "pendulum" (of sorts) out of a piece of wood by putting a groove in its top edge so I could roll one or more marbles or large ball bearings in it. [On p. 23 of Collins' book, it indicates how Bessler's "father made a small toy wheel for him to play with ..."] My dad added handles to a bicycle wheel for me to play with. He gave me an old pocket watch (that didn't run) that was his father's and told me that it had some gold in it. He did not tell me if it contained any silver. My dad played various games with me, though I do not recall him playing much if any chess. My mother grew up in the Dust Bowl during the Great Depression. My mother (a legal secretary prior to her child rearing days) told me of the inventiveness of her youngest grandfather. Long before the old civic auditorium in Albuquerque was supposedly built in such an original fashion, he built a dome roof for his cellar by mounding up dirt, carefully placing mutually supporting shaped rocks on top, cementing the rocks' exterior (mainly for finish, to hold the rocks in place as opposed to primary static structural support), and digging out the dirt interior. When I was an adult, my mother gave me an old hymn book (without musical notes) that belonged to her oldest great grandfather who was a Methodist preacher and doctor (and who also according to unconfirmed family tradition was said to be one fourth Cherokee Indian).

I think I tended to score lower on some timed standardized tests by my being slow, careful and thoughtful. I wonder if I at times saw things that the question writers did not see and so I was doubly penalized for both answering "incorrectly" and being slow (not finishing some of my tests).

University of New Mexico. I began my studies at the University of New Mexico with plans of just majoring in Mathematics, though as a freshman I did take a year of Physics for non-majors for the fun of it. I asked for and was granted a waiver of the first year prerequisite for Physics so I could go directly into the third semester class so that I could proceed to minor in Physics. With effort expended, I went on to the Physics major track. In 1975, I received a double major B.S. degree in Mathematics and Physics with honors (Cum Laude) in each from the University of New Mexico. One of my physics professors requested that I save up all my questions until the end of each lecture and that is what I did. I would typically fire off a string of questions at the end of his lectures. I wrote a letter to the author (John D. McGervey) of one of my physics text books, Introduction to MODERN PHYSICS, with a long list of typos (and the appropriate corrections) that I found in his book. He responded in a letter to me that every one of them was a real error. Some of them were printer's errors and the rest were his fault. All of them needed to be corrected and no one else had informed him of any of them. He wrote, "That is really remarkable - You are a very careful reader." He thanked me twice in the letter and promised to have the publisher send me a free copy of the corrected book which he later did do. I had synthesized or reconstructed many correct things by very careful study of partially flawed things.


During a senior honors physics seminar, I mentioned to one of the professors there (during a discussion about gravity) that a larger mass should hit the ground sooner [in vacuum]. He understandably said I should go back and review the elementary equations. Still from his response, he apparently didn't want me to discuss my point or rather he apparently didn't think that there was anything to discuss (which discussion I thought was central to the seminar but I just "backed off" and dropped the point without any further comment as it seemed that I was treading on some ground that I should not be treading upon then). If I had insisted on maintaining the point, I meant separate experiments where the motion of the earth in response to the falling mass is not ignored as is "typically" done. This effect may not be measurable (for normal mass sizes) and so would need to be considered as thought experimental but to claim that "the geodesic motion of a mass is completely independent of the size of the mass falling in gravity" is only an excellent approximation (according to the elementary equations). To say that "space-time curvature is completely independent of mass moving therein" is just an excellent approximation. Maybe to better see this point, one could go far out into "open" space and do a series of three separate thought experiments (or actual experiments if desired). Each experiment being the release of two solid metal spheres toward each other. Each sphere has the same diameter and the two spheres are released from a fixed stationary "rest" position (of say two sphere diameters between their centers) (without "anything" being allowed to rotate) wherein they are then allowed to come together according to their mutual gravitational attraction. The time to impact is measured in each case. (E1) In the first experiment, two gold spheres are used. (E2) In the second experiment, one gold sphere and one silver sphere is used. (E3) In the third experiment two silver spheres are used. The density of silver is less than that of gold. I claim thought experimental results (according to the elementary Newtonian equations) of the gold spheres (in experiment E1) impacting in a smaller or shorter time than the two silver spheres (in experiment E3) and I would further claim that the gold and silver spheres (in the experiment E2) having an impact time somewhere strictly between the other two times. Then in comparing the results of the first two experiments (E1 and E2) we can see somewhat of a rationale why I spoke to my professor that the heavier mass should hit the ground sooner. The heavier gold sphere impacts the gold "ground" sooner than the lighter silver sphere impacts the gold "ground" because it really is a coupled system where the "ground" is explicitly an important part of the solution and so effects the mass being dropped. I doubt that this interesting situation contributes much directly to the solution of the Bessler wheel puzzle but I thought I would mention it anyway since it deals with something that is typically approximated away in dealing with gravity for understandable reasons. If we only look at just part of the total solution, then the gravitational force on a mass divided by that mass still depends very slightly upon that mass. The reader can take it as speculation but to say that there is a conservative force field called gravity operating on extended actual (rotating, interacting non-ideal) massive objects is likely just a useful approximation (when we only look at just part of the interactive solution). Another way of viewing this is that if we only examine a partial portion of the fully interactive situation (when the full physics must incorporate the full situation), then gravity in this limited context is not a field at all so that strictly speaking it certainly can not be a conservative field (in this restricted context). The idea of action at a distance fields can be misleading at the very least.

I scored in the country's top 500 in the 34th William Lowell Putnam Mathematical Competition. (It was a temporally long "non-standardized" test.) Because of this, various colleges across the country invited me to study graduate mathematics at their institutions but I decided to study physics instead of mathematics in graduate school.


University of Colorado. I entered graduate school at the University of Colorado to study physics in 1975 where I initially worked as a teaching assistant. Eventually, I passed all the graduate course work save one credit hour for the Ph.D. in Physics. In 1977, I passed the comprehensive written and oral examinations for the Ph.D. After passing those exams I worked as a research assistant at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory. On my own initiative, I built a solar furnace using a Fresnel lens which mostly worked. It did not have anything to do with my official studies. It was just something that I was interested in. I also tried to build a solar stove that did not work well because it did not retain the energy from the light that was brought together by the many mirrors. [Years later I built a solar oven sans reflectors that worked because it allowed the heat to accumulate within the fully enclosed glass and wood container also using insulation. Note that the Bessler wheel somehow had to allow the collected energy to accumulate as it quickly grew in energy production strength. See Collins' book pp. 16, 20, 110 for example. Having something like a pendulum inside the Bessler's wheel would allow it to quickly grow in energy production strength, if the pendulum were to somehow increase its swing amplitude with every complete swing cycle.] My 3 ft by 5 ft solar stove was standing or rather leaning on end in a room on the second story of the building which housed the cyclotron. One day many of the mirrors suddenly started popping off, as the plywood and wooden wedges could curve or bend slightly but the thick glass mirrors which I had glued on would not so flex. [Orffyrean technology is in large part based on slight differences of cylindrical curvatures.] I had quite a mess to clean up since some mirrors that popped off would fall upon other mirrors and set them to popping. On another occasion, I was told that I had "flooded" a part of the cyclotron. I apparently had accidentally flooded a portion of the cyclotron late one night though I was never quite sure what I had done wrong as that portion was covered up to maintain vacuum, so the consequences associated with my actions or lack thereof had to be inferred through measurements. It took some time to get it dried out and "pump down" the vacuum again. [If we don't pay very careful attention to the smallest experimental details when building the internal powering mechanism for a Bessler wheel, we can invite disaster or at best lack of success.] Though I participated in group research experiments there was little evidence that I was doing much officially of individual research credit to the university. I did not do a dissertation. I just could not seem to motivate myself about doing my own research work toward a dissertation in nuclear physics. In hindsight, I recognize that some novel thoughts had occurred to me while I was in graduate school (on at least two different occasions) but they were what we currently would say are cold fusion related and I did not understand or know enough to come up with a viably related research topic toward such a dissertation. Anyway, the University of Colorado kindly granted me an M.S. degree in Physics in 1979 because I had previously passed the comprehensive examinations. Sight unseen, I accepted the only job offer that I was extended. It was at China Lake, California at a navy base in the upper Mojave desert. There is seldom water in the normally dry China Lake except after rare major rainstorms. Before I left Boulder, Colorado for California, I received another job offer for more money but I had already accepted the job at China Lake.


California. In Jan 1980, I reported to work at the then Naval Weapons Center, at China Lake, California, where I am still employed as a civil servant of the United States Government in the Department of Defense. I believe that I am being of much service to my country by working for NAVAIR at the Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division. I have gotten to do some computer programing which for certain tasks has caused me to be abstractly creative yet very careful and precise. [As is the case with the Bessler wheel, some portions of programs when built correctly, need to operate coherently without conflict with other portions so that there is a new type of entity created in its whole.] I want to emphasize that my individually initiated work on the Bessler wheel is not a part of my official government duties. I am producing this Bessler wheel paper as a service to mankind. I attended Calvary Chapel from 1980 or 1981 to 1983. I did not start keeping a personal journal until 1983. I would like to have referred to journal entries of 20 or more years ago but alas I kept no such journal and I cannot turn back the clock. [Many times when one is trying to harvest ideas in advancing the state of the art in new scientific areas, the prudent person really should write down somewhere at least the best ideas in scientific fashion. As John Collins supposed, Bessler wrote down his most important findings though he wrote them down symbolically.]

In 1981, I married Lindy A. Paine at the Carlisle Plaza United Methodist Church in Albuquerque. [Bessler seemed to secretly study (for many long years) the entire world in his quest toward his invention. With the help of God, he had a strangely invigorating dream, quickly constructed his working invention, and then quickly got married to the daughter of a physician whom he hadn't previously met. Though I met Lindy long ago in second grade, I quickly got married to Lindy 21 years later. Then many years later, with little prior study of Bessler's problem, I relatively quickly (for me and relative to the three century problem) decoded (with the help of God) Bessler's hidden chiastic parable without actually constructing the working invention. Instead of keeping my Bessler wheel discoveries secret, I am publishing to the world as many of my findings as I imagine that the world is ready for.] Lindy was the daughter of a mechanic (a chief motor machinist mate during WWII) and a nurse (prior to beginning their family, an officer in the Army Air Corps during WWII). After getting married, I learned that at one time Lindy's family had been next door neighbors to the Fischbeck family and that Mr. and Mrs. George Fischbeck, were sponsors [meaning godparents] when Lindy was baptized as an infant in St. Timothy's Evangelical Lutheran Church. In 1983, my wife and I both were baptized by immersion into The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. We were then living within the boundaries of the Ridgecrest Third Ward. Church members somewhat take turns holding different church positions [in similar fashion to the Orffyrean roller bearing]. I have had an assortment of church callings (which may be considered as voluntary, monetarily-unpaid church jobs). I am currently a Home Teacher in the Ridgecrest First Ward and a staff member at the local Family History Center (though without an official calling to it). In August 2000, I changed from being a Ward Clerk to being a First Counselor in an Elders Quorum Presidency. In September 2000, I changed from being a Committee Member for Boy Scout Troop 68 to a Committee Member for Varsity Scout Team 68. I have learned with time that God could help me solve my problems both technical and otherwise (assuming I did my part, sought his help, and waited with patience for the Lord to respond in his own way which often could be through the help of others or my own efforts if it were possible). [On p. 24 of Collins' book, it indicates that Bessler claimed he was "successively a Cleric, a Doctor and finally a Mathematician". I almost did things in the opposite order as I got a dual B. S. degree in Mathematics and Physics, I was working toward a Ph.D. for about four years, and I became a Ward Clerk. In the correspondence I got back from Fusion Technology, they assumed I had a Ph.D. when they referred to me as Dr. so I had to correct them by explaining how I only had an M.S. degree.]


Cold Fusion. My interest in cold fusion was sparked by hearing over the pulpit my then Bishop Lowell Wilkins speak of the experimental success that fellow ward member, Mel Miles, had. My interest was further sparked by attending a lunchtime presentation (on 19 June 1991) of experimental results by Dr. Miles prior to his going to the Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, Como, Italy (29 June - 4 July 1991). In November. 1993 while living within the boundaries of the Ridgecrest Second Ward, I had my somewhat unusual paper "Some Thoughts on a Simple Mechanism for the 2H + 2H -> 4He Cold Fusion Reaction" published in Volume 24 of the peer reviewed journal Fusion Technology of the American Nuclear Society. The individually initiated paper was not published as part of my official government duties. I was quite excited about doing the paper but the paper had to be labeled as speculative. I think that the simple rotation-of-things is an overlooked area in many fields [whether it is the fusion of internally rotating nuclear ground states of deuterium to form a new highly rotating nuclear-ground-state entity of helium or it is the fusion of two rotating sprocket wheels by means of a chain to create a new composite wheel-pendulum entity]. My personal speculative opinion is that most if not all cold fusion phenomena (wherein nuclear reactions occur at apparently low energies) can be simply explained at least qualitatively from a consideration of the interaction of internally rotating nuclear-ground-states. This essentially requires no new theory other than not ignoring an academic subtlety of there being often ignored unquantized internal angular velocities of the quantized nuclear-ground-states. My 1993 paper was a theoretical example of a nuclear reaction through the interaction of internally rotating nuclear-ground-states. [It may appear that I am now badly digressing from the Bessler wheel problem but I am doing so to help drive home a crucial point that I suspect has been hitherto lacking or missing in most analyses of the Bessler wheel problem. That is rather than being purely interested in the motion of separate "point" masses or weights within the wheel that are subject to "conservative" force "field" analysis, one should pay much attention to extended masses with quite internal rotations that can be caused to change their states of rotations relative to one another. Both the cold fusion and the Bessler wheel problems are similar in that what actually happened has been hidden from our view (the one by spatial size and the other by time if not also by spatial size). Both problems may also be similar if their solutions involve the notion of internal angular momenta. If I can help solve one problem, maybe my thoughts on the other should be given consideration. The rotations of the two pairs of nucleons shown in my cold fusion paper was somewhat comparable to the motion of two rotating bicycle wheels or of two linked bicycle sprocket wheels with them additionally being able to rotate around each other. I now continue my "side" background discussion regarding internally rotating nuclear-ground-states.]


To try to come to grips with the existence of such rotations (that I believe in principle can bridge the atomic and nuclear situations), a thought experimental question such as the following can be asked, (Q1) "Does there exist a single rotating-coordinate-system with respect to which a large collection of 4He nuclear-ground-states (each of quantum nuclear spin zero) such that every 4He nuclear-ground-state has precisely zero internal-angular-velocity?" The question is thought experimental as we do not actually need to measure each nuclear system and thereby alter or quantize the individual systems being measured (by any normal measurement process itself). The translational kinetic energies of unbounded (or free) nuclear-ground-states are unquantized. Assuming a temperature above absolute zero, their ground-state kinetic energies are not bound or frozen in kinetic energy with respect to some translational coordinate system. (Q2) Assuming a temperature above absolute zero, why should we assume that the rotationally free or unconstrained nuclear-ground-states are bound or frozen (with respect to internal rotation) to some rotational coordinate system? [A freely rotating sprocket wheel located far out in the vacuum of free space may have very small but effectively unquantized amounts of internal rotational kinetic energy.] There are many other questions one can ask regarding the extent of nuclear states being internally rotationally frozen in angular velocity with respect to each other. I spoke with Dr. Eugene F. Mallove (the Editor-in-Chief of Infinite Energy) on the Laura Lee radio talk show of 9 Aug. 1997. I noted that a century ago there was a question as to whether or not there existed a universal coordinate system with respect to which the speed of light was a constant. I basically asked him the question (Q3) "Does there exist a single universal rotational-coordinate-system with respect to which all spin zero 4He nuclear-ground-states have precisely zero angular velocity?" Note that the angular velocity being referred to (in questions Q1 and Q3) is not that due to external translational velocity of each nucleus as a whole with respect to the coordinate system but rather it is the residual internal angular velocity of each nucleus. I think that any nuclear physicist who tries to poke fun at cold fusion should first try to answer such questions as these and then to carefully ponder the implications of the answers. Still, people refusing to examine the data (or refusing to admit that the large body of accumulated information in favor of cold fusion even exists) are especially likely not to consider questions related to any potential explanation of such data. On the other hand, they seem to be the first to say that such results cannot occur based on the "laws" of physics. A decade of many physicists ignoring or deriding cold fusion by denying that the phenomena even exists is a decade too many. It is time that they seriously begin to consider the preponderance of the evidence (rather than being swayed by outdated faulty information previously propagated in the politically popular press). There is some evidence that more physicists are starting to take cold fusion much more seriously. I have included just a few references on cold fusion in my references and notes section. One should recall that physics is an experimental science so we should not toss out the data just because it does not match somebody's popular theory. If people only want to deal with the theory, I suggest they might begin by attempting to answer my theoretical questions but they need not confine themselves to just my questions as many other people have proposed many other theoretical ideas regarding cold fusion. Maybe I am overlooking something and then again maybe I have come across something so basic and simple that it is almost universally ignored for whatever reasons. From the usual perspective of nuclear scattering experiments with measurements typically on the order of MeV, the existence of any residual rotations with energies on the order of eV or less was generally and reasonably considered inconsequential (at least until cold fusion made its appearance with special interactive situations where I think many little rotations are allowed to accumulate). I suppose that requires a separate paper but not now. [There may be an interesting comparison with the accumulation of many small angular rotations according to Bessler's Orffyrean technology, especially if the Bessler pendulum is able to serve as an angular momentum bridge from the subatomic level to the macroscopic level.]

Infinite Energy. I had begun subscribing and reading Infinite Energy after a tip by Dr. Miles. I could see that the magazine treated cold fusion fairly, though in many other parts of the "scientific" community it was given nothing approaching a fair treatment scientifically.


Infinite Energy often referred to interesting "new" technologies and some of them could be adapted to science fair experimentation. For the spring of 1999, my son (Christopher G. Park) and I built theory-shaking fixed-ring Marinov motors. See the related discussion in (1997-1998) IE issues #17, 18, and 19. He got to do fun experiments with them for his science fair project. I have been interested in learning about the Ranque effect in IE issue #27. Renzo Boscoli therein considered promotion of the Ranque phenomenon to the level of a Principle which he stated as, "whenever any mass of gas, whatever its initial density and temperature, is caused to rotate axially, via exogenous and/or endogenous effects, it will gradually cool in the area near the axis of rotation and will warm in the external areas." For the 9 March 2000 science fair at James Monroe Middle School, I with my younger brother, Harry F. Park, attempted to build a prototype of a Bessler pendulum for my son, so that Christopher could do fun experiments with it for his science fair project. Christopher selected "Bessler Pendulum Effectiveness" as the title of his project but he later added "Untuned" to the title after I could not get the torque governing pendulum at the top to swing with the same period as the main pendulum. Christopher had a hypothesis of "The largest angle made by a Bessler pendulum will remain larger than that of a physical pendulum of the same shape." In Christopher's report and on his poster, Christopher thanked Alden Park (me), Harry Park, and Steven Meadows for building the pendulum so that he could do experiments with it. Christopher found that his hypothesis tested out negative with respect to the available pendulum (or in other words the hypothesis was not observed to be correct). I am getting ahead of the personal background story. Let me back up a little.

Bessler Wheel. I read about the Bessler wheel in Infinite Energy (IE) issues #21 (1998) and #23 (1999). The IE review articles contained many comments regarding the book Perpetual Motion: An Ancient Mystery Solved? by John Collins. From this book (p. 23), I now understand that Johann Ernst Elias Bessler, also known as Orffyreus, was born in 1680 or 1681 near Zittau [which is now a city in present day Germany very close to the border with Poland and also close to the Czech Republic]. He built, publicly demonstrated, and destroyed four "self" powering wheels though Collins (p. 60) has found evidence for three more such devices built (and destroyed) by Bessler. The first of the four well-publicized wheels was shown publicly in Gera in 1712 (see p. 15). Each unique wheel rotated about a horizontal axle. See the figures on pp. 27, 35, 199 of Collins' book and some related discussion on pp. 36, 66, 198. At its full power production or full rotational speed, each wheel was able to produce its own particular level of useable mechanical power. The Kassel wheel, as both the largest in diameter (11.15 to 12 feet, pp. 16, 20, 61, 110, 197, 200) and the thickest (14 to 18 inches, pp. 16, 20, 110, 198, 200), produced more power than any of the other wheels.


EM Over-Unity Engines. I had carefully studied Tom Bearden's paper "The Master Principle of EM Overunity and the Japanese Overunity Engines" in IE double issue #5&6 (1995/1996). An updated version of his paper may be found within (-> Inside -> INDEX -> Correspondents -> Tom E Bearden) which references among many other things: (1) David Scott's "Magnetic 'Wankel' for Electric Cars" in June 1979 Popular Science pp. 80-81 and (2) Teruo Kawai's "Motive Power Generating Device," U.S. Patent No. 5,436,518, July 25, 1995 which patent may be read on the Internet ( Bearden lists seven primary or master principles, to be followed in designing overunity electromagnetic (EM) engines and devices. As I understand it, the master principle amounts to nonconservatively or asymmetrically self-regauging of the system electromagnetic potentials. I think that Bearden's paper should be carefully studied by any physicist who thinks that over-unity EM engines are physically impossible. [I take "over-unity" to mean that its efficiency is greater than one. I take efficiency to mean the useful energy output divided by the "obvious" energy input (and not counting any "free" input energy). The definition of "over-unity" is thus dependent upon the meaning of the expressions "useful energy" output, "obvious energy" input, and "free energy." If we find an energy source that is a hitherto unknown source of energy (considering it as an unobvious energy source), then we can consider it as "free energy" in that we here need not count it as being part of the input energy. Gravity would to this point be generally considered as an unobvious or free source of energy assuming one could extract energy from it. Any known energy source that is for some reason considered as a "free" energy source may also be used in the construction of an over-unity device.]

That IE double issue #5&6 also had a couple of other articles about the electromagnetic motor or engine of Yasunori Takahashi, CEO of Sciex Corp. Takahashi's company built an electric scooter powered by batteries and his 7 kg motor or engine that had a range of 500 miles. Mr. Takahashi did not claim over-unity performance as the magnets lose strength at about 3% per year. In other words, I believe he was implying that the extra energy might be coming about because of the destruction of magnetic dipoles, which was a clever way of side-stepping the politically-physically sensitive over-unity issue in the interest of trying to market his scooter. It appears that degraded efficiency motors/dynamos are currently being thoughtfully introduced into vehicles under the category of regenerative braking. Later, increasing the efficiency of such motors/dynamos would wisely allow for profitable planned product improvements. See Bearden's Internet comments within "Update on the Takahashi Engine". I think that the Japanese inventors need to be complimented on their persistent-studious efforts, foresight, and ingenuity [not unlike the example of Bessler and if things were fair they should receive rewards of at least 100,000 thalers]. I think that the apparent Japanese strategy of gradually switching over to new power sources is admirable in that it would not cause turmoil and major economic disruptions. Retracting the huge technology leap is wise strategically and group financially as it allows those with the technology edge to collectively compete from a sustained perspective of higher-ground technology-wise. Much of the full over-unity EM technology has seemed to have gone into hiding. It may be brought out in incremental steps or await a more favorable marketing climate (or change of people's beliefs to allow marketing of such). There may also be understandable resistance on the part of those making large amounts of money from oil. They would be quite resistant to having their large profits sent elsewhere. As ancient Gadianton robbers (or rather unrighteously combined secret groups) were not opposed to threatening an individual or even a whole country to suit their evil purpose (see 3 Ne. 3:1-12 as an example), their modern-day counterparts would not hesitate to threaten individuals or even whole nations, if it were to work to their perceived advantage (according to their limited perspective).


EM and Gravity. The following discussion is different than the way I was taught about electromagnetism and gravity so the traditional student may just want to ignore it. As a stationary charged particle might be a gating source and sink of much power in the form of electromagnetic radiation (going and coming at the speed of light, c, yet not according to the traditional Poynting vector intensity EXH = 0 but rather departing intensity proportional to Ecq/|q| where E is the electric field intensity of that source charge, q), a stationary neutral mass (generally composed of particles with opposite charges causing much macroscopic canceling of their superimposed electromagnetic radiations) might also be the source (and sink) of much power departing at the speed of light in the form of gravitational radiation of intensity proportional to -gc where g is the inward pointing gravitational field intensity from that gravitational mass source. In either case, there are very interesting issues regarding whether or not it is somehow possible for one to gain energy access to a portion of these hypothetical intensities. Bearden dealt with many electromagnetic considerations but also touches upon some gravitational considerations (see his Internet paper "Chasing the Wild Dragon: Foundations of a New Science"). I found a reference to what I recalled from my graduate school days about the graviton likely being a spin 2 particle. See the Internet page for a statement that the graviton should have spin 2hbar where hbar is Planck's constant divided by 2 pi. This would mean that each graviton (of gravitational radiation) would have relatively much spin in it. It would then have twice that of the spin one normal photon (of electromagnetic radiation) or four times the spin of the spin 1/2 hbar electron (or proton). I can now speculate that the graviton might be a local soliton of two somehow very tightly coupled photons, with macroscopically canceling opposite E "fields" (with directionality and spin constructively remaining). It seems that there should be some physical manifestation of the much hypothetically superimposed electromagnetic radiation (with essentially completely canceled E and H fields so that the radiation has powerful penetration properties) coming from the many charged particle pairs within neutral matter and maybe that slightly attractive manifestation is called gravity. It can be attractive as opposite charges attract. It might be a gentle attraction as the coupled radiation pair needs to wait until conditions nearly opposite the way they were produced are encountered. One might think of the soliton pair of waiting until a charge exchanged opposite internal rotational geometry is found with an "acceptable" rotational phase.

It seems I should mention the following situation. There was a demonstration regarding spinors in Figure 41.6 on p. 1149 of Gravitation by Misner, Thorne, and Wheeler. The figure showed elastic threads attached to an object where if the object has been rotated by two full turns or 720 degrees the figure shows how the twisted elastic threads can be rearranged without any movement of the object itself so that all the thread twists vanish (it then being topologically equivalent to twisting the object by zero degrees or no twisting of the object at all). The object, if rotated through just a single full rotation of 360 degrees, could not have its threads rearranged to undo the thread twists. Such speculation or discussion may be taking us away from the more immediate practical matter at hand so I will try to return to that problem.


It seemed to me to be possible to build a Bessler wheel-like "perpetual motion" machine using over-unity electromagnetic engines but most of the world had curiously seemed to reject them. [By "perpetual motion" I do not mean according to the typical modern definition as shown on p. 193 of John Collins' book, "A Perpetual Motion machine is a device which, once having been started, will continue to run indefinitely, with no additional input of energy, as long as the materials of which it is constructed do not wear out." Rather I now mean a "perpetual motion" machine is any device which, once having been started, will continue to run indefinitely, as long as the materials of which it is constructed do not wear out, with no additional input of power, except for a guaranteed power supply through the medium of either gravitation or electromagnetism or Kae-e-vanrash or Kli-flos-is-es (or Hah-ko-kau-beam). You may ignore the unusual words if you don't want to consider such possibilities, but these media are mentioned in the scriptures.] (The information in the London Times about the Takahashi or Sciex scooter apparently fell on deaf ears or blind eyes not yet able or prepared to receive that test marketing information.) Aside from the more obvious electrodynamics reguaging approach, I just could not understand how one could possibly build such a machine as that built by Bessler. Still the evidence that came from John Collins (via IE) was very impressive. I thought that there needed to be some solution other than an electro-mechanical solution. I did not think that Bessler had much access to electrodynamic materials near the beginning of the 1700's anyway. I realized such things as I could get my rolling chair to work its way around the room from a stationary position because of my motion while seated in it (without my feet on the floor) because of the nature of the coefficients of friction (larger for static than for moving coefficients of friction). It would not be possible for the chair to so move across the floor if it were not for an imbalance in the forces. I well understood the standard theory that gravity was a conservative field. Ignoring friction or the conversion of energy to other forms, a "point" mass by itself loses from its gravitational potential energy the amount acquired in kinetic energy and vice versa. With friction not ignored, there is some energy lost in the process. On and after 12 January 2000, thoughts and understanding began to come to me as I considered the information available to me with respect to the Bessler wheel problem.

Initial Analysis


I first considered an inner structure of loops within Bessler's wheel. I tried making drawings of all sorts of mapped arrangements of loops as if a larger wheel were the outer Bessler wheel itself and a smaller wheel were something like a loop within the Bessler wheel (such as loops of ropes to lift up weights so that they could be dropped upon the base or bottom interior edge of the Bessler wheel). I didn't realize it at the time but this was apparently the traditional method that is often used in analyzing the interior of Bessler's wheel. I have since then seen that John Collins has approaches similar to this on his Internet site, I connected the two loops. The two loops touched at least where the weights came in contact with the rim of Bessler's wheel. I seemed to be going nowhere. I thought that I should be trying some experiments but doing experiments with wheels inside of wheels was not a simple thing to arrange. On 20 Jan. 2000, it occurred to me that if the Bessler wheel is a single touch type of wheel near the bottom, that this could easily be somewhat tested out externally using an inverted or external type of Bessler wheel that could use readily available bicycle wheels. On my Friday off (21 Jan. 2000), after some experiments with bicycles in inverted arrangements with tires touching, I considered that this was not the case. I became very discouraged by the disappointing though expected ordinary results. I could not figure out what the power source was. On 22 Jan. 2000, I thought that the Ranque effect or some Ranque-like effect might be responsible for the power production in a Bessler wheel (with hot air molecules on the inside of the Bessler wheel but near the outer wheel edge with the weights designed to capture some of the energy). I was really grabbing at straws.

Then about 26 Jan. 2000, I considered or contemplated the interior of the Bessler wheel and began to think that alternating torques might somehow dump energy into a smaller wheel moving according to a pendulum. Exactly how those torques might be delivered was not at all clear. The timing for loops of weights hung from such a small wheel (or for loops of weights instead hung from a chain connected large wheel) seemed to be impossible. A switch over in the torques would have to occur at greatest pendulum-angular-amplitude for it to acquire additional energy but that seemed unreasonable so I dropped the weighted-loop torque-switch-over line of thought. Maybe having the pendulum go all the way over the top might provide a simple alternative to the changing torque directions and only having to deal with how to get energy out of the pendulum motion, as then the pendulum would be just going one way and the torques need only to be applied in one direction (with friction, etc. supplying counter torques to keep the energy stored from becoming too great). Such a thing could be possible if pendulum angular amplitudes were to increase to such a point that the pendulum rotations could have gone just in one direction. One could call this a "run away" situation. On Friday evening 28 Jan. 2000, while I was riding my bicycle home, it occurred to me what a possible mechanism might be for applying alternating torques to a small wheel moving with pendulum motion with respect to a large wheel with both connected by a chain. There might be a second suspended ordinary pendulum weight from the top of the extended main Bessler pendulum line "above" the large wheel. The pendulum line could go through the centers of both the small wheel and the large wheel. I could call the small ordinary pendulum weight a torque governor for it might govern the torques applied at the amplitude extremes of the main pendulum line going through the small wheel. A small pendulum weight suspended from a point at the top of the main pendulum line might be an easy way to provide alternating torques. It seemed to me that the pendulum either could not or was not allowed (by means of energy extraction) to typically swing over the top (and so not typically be in a run away state). The main-pendulum-line might then just keep swinging back and forth (acquiring and distributing energy).


It seemed obvious to me (with the internal angular velocities all going in the same direction for both the smaller wheel and the larger wheel) (only speeding up and slowing down) that Bessler apparently could have made good use of the fact that the moving coefficient of friction being smaller than the larger static coefficient of friction. Thus, Bessler surely would not have let the wheels come to a stop as that would have wasted too much energy. This could have been how Bessler pretty much avoided the large static coefficients of friction. As far as how the coefficient of friction varies with speed for the moving situations, this is not obvious to me. I might guess that the coefficient of friction decreases with increasing speed until it gets to some speed. Just where this point is, is not obvious to me and we should properly leave the situation to experimentation anyway.

The smaller wheel could have larger internal angular speed because of the gearing or according to the ratio of the number of teeth in the two wheels. This is the normal situation with the gearing in the modern safety bicycle though in a Bessler wheel-pendulum the sizes of sprocket wheels could be much larger than the ones we see in a bicycle. Also unlike the normal bicycle, the sprocket wheels in a Bessler wheel-pendulum could have their interiors uniformly filled in so that they correspond to large moments of inertia. The sprocket wheels on ordinary bicycles typically have little mass in their interiors so that they are lighter than with filled in interiors.

In the 7 Feb. mail, I received the copy of John Collins' book, Perpetual Motion: An Ancient Mystery Solved? (1997), which my wife ordered for me over the phone, (603)228-4516, on 1 Feb. 2000 from Cold Fusion Technology, Inc., the publishers of Infinite Energy magazine. Though I had gotten home from work late, I was able to quickly spot various things (by quickly looking through the book and reading sections of interest): (1) the monogram (on p. 2) of Orffyreus showing the loops at the front and back depicting the increasing amplitude transitions to higher amplitude on the left and right sides by the smaller wheel, (2) the translation of the name Bessler to Orffyre on p. 181 using the code of writing the first 13 letters of the alphabet in a horizontal line above the last 13 letters (possibly later symbolizing how the energy is obtained by the interactions of both sides of the pendulum though writing the letters of the alphabet in two vertical columns might better convey such a symbolic link), (3) the figure on p. 189 which to me represented the operation of the pendulum (guessing the two upper white sectors represent the regions of maximum amplitude of the pendulum which are most effective with respect to power generation for a well-tuned pendulum), and (4) the words on p. 188 of John Collins' book (and similar to the words in Appendix A on p. 225 containing the center of the paragraph passage) which I state here with permission of John Collins, "A wheel appears on the scene - is it really a wheel, for it does not have a normal rim. It revolves, but without other wheels inside or outside, and without weights, wind or springs. Seen sideways or full-face it is as bright as a peacock's tail. It turns to the right and the left; it spins around in either direction, laden or empty." To me in (4), Bessler is clearly referring to what I think we should call a Bessler wheel-pendulum (if it is the very central idea of the Bessler wheel). It is interesting that Bessler refers to it as a wheel but he is not sure that it really is a wheel. I am sure that he would not dare to call it a wheel-pendulum as that would have given away too much information about its construction. Collectively (1), (2), (3), and (4) to me (separately and together) pictorially speak of the operation of Bessler's pendulum. Bessler for almost 300 years "hid" this information in plain sight for all to see who could see it. It seemed to me that anyone coming up with his invention would surely need to acknowledge in hindsight that Bessler had invented it previously.

On 8 Feb. 2000, I noticed that the monogram on p. 2 of Collins' book also could symbolically represent the drawing off of energy from the "wheel."


I noticed on p. 29 that Bessler had a strangely invigorating dream prior to his inventing his pendulum. Bessler acknowledged God's help. See pp. 28, 29, 32, 65, 141 of Collins' book. I acknowledge God's help in helping me to understand and consider things that I might not otherwise consider. As seen on p. 228, Bessler repeated his referenced scripture, 1 Cor. 10:31 which in the King James Bible reads, "Whether therefore ye eat, or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God." As this was one of the many scriptures that he referenced according to his declaration of faith, I suppose he meant it. I too would like to echo Amen to this and if any of my many speculations are true, then I think that the glory should not go to me but rather to God according to that particular declaration of faith scriptural-reference given by Bessler.

Some Thoughts Regarding Bessler Pendulum Attempt

I initially thought that the torque governor just consisted of a small pendulum. That is how I assembled a prototype Bessler pendulum for my son. I do not currently think that this is correct. If the torque governor were to contain a pendulum, I suppose it would be wise to select its periodicity to match that of the main Bessler pendulum line or it would be wise to select its periodicity so that it is sufficiently out of phase with the main pendulum that its energy is applied when it is most needed to increase the amplitude of the main pendulum. I was unable to tune that pendulum so that it would have those desired periodicity-and-energy-transfer properties. My son would have been in trouble if he did not do experiments on something so he just had to do his experiments using an inferior prototype of a Bessler pendulum. With Christopher's and my own observations, I began to understand that the torque governor should primarily be a wheel so as to avoid the phasing and periodicity problems. This idea was confirmed when I began to decode Bessler's "little book." In a number of places in Bessler's "little book," it only makes sense to interpret the torque governor as a wheel (and apparently also a sprocket wheel at that). Especially though not exclusively see the snow, the great horse herd, and Saturn.

Christopher's experiments showed that his hypothesis tested out negative for that particular "untuned" Bessler pendulum. (Q4) Why might the attempt at making a Bessler pendulum for the science fair have failed? (1) There was too much friction in the chain and the pivot bearings. The wheels and chain could not spin for very long without stopping. I think that the chain and pivot bearings also needed to have the grease removed and use powdered graphite as was done on the other bearings (according to the tip I received from Tom Frisbee for situations of little friction being desired under conditions of there being little or no load). (2) The wheels might not be large enough in diameter and with respect to moment of inertia. Apparently Bessler's larger wheels were more effective. (3) The torque governor should have been a wheel with critically timed stopping and resumption specifications. This would have solved the phasing problems I noticed. (4) The dimensions may not have been correct. (5) The chain may not have been at the correct tightness. (6) The wheels probably should have been of the same thickness. (7) Stability for a wheel would have increased if either a roller-type bearing (as Bessler had access to) or a pair of ball-type bearings were used in place of each unpaired ball-type bearing. (8) Other things need to be done as specified by Bessler's "little book" and his associated diagram.


An Interpretation of Bessler's Little Book Parable

John Collins was desirous that someone should break Bessler's code and so explain how one can build the wheel. I do not know if there is any other coding (say in Bessler's about 140 referenced symbolic scriptures in his declaration of faith) but what I do know (as I became aware of it through study and pondering of related things) is that Bessler's "little book" is coded (with the assistance of literary devices) according to a very old (if not the oldest) method for "coding" scriptural messages. That is the method of symbolic representation or in other words it is a parable. See "Parables" in the Bible Dictionary (near the back of The Holy Bible published in 1979 by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints). Parables are typically used to withhold information from those who are not yet spiritually ready to receive the message. The person can hear the words but may not hear or understand the full message. The person seeing the symbolic message sees but may not see the intended hidden message unless the person has enough training and spiritual preparation (in large part faith and intelligence) to receive it. One needs to seek to find the meaning of a parable. Typically parables or such symbolism can survive the language translation process if the language translation is good. Still it can be helpful if the language translator understands the hidden level (or levels) of meaning to make sure that the hidden message is still available in the new language. The skill, intelligence, and spirituality of the parable designer have much to do with the language translation survivability process. The proper interpretation of a parable contains the intended message(s) of the parable, when it was first given.

I think that an attempted interpretation of Bessler's "little book" (showing his pendulum with its lost Orffyrean technology) is long overdue. This is my attempt at a symbolic interpretation of Bessler's "little book" (first encoded passage) which may be found in translated English (pp. 225-226 and almost all the original German pp. 226-227) in Appendix A of John Collins' book. Collins indicates that the original language version is from the Apologia or rather the Poetica Apologia (Collins p. 187, 21) of Orffyreus. If I am wrong in any of my guesses, I hope that Bessler will forgive any trespass I've made against him. The reader should follow along with an original German or translated version of Bessler's "little book" to see how I am doing interpretation-wise and maybe so the reader will gain some insight so as to construct a better interpretation. If the reader does not study a version of Bessler's "little book" and especially if the reader does not have access to a version of Bessler's "little book," then the reader might not understand why I am attempting to interpret things the way I am so doing (and mixing the language of the interpretation with the language of the things being interpreted). I suspect that Bessler does not mind much my taking the liberty of speaking the parable's interpretation in his name as (1) his "little book" was written in the first person and (2) I am trying to help remove the label of fraud that was incorrectly associated with this man.


Though he had his particular strengths, weaknesses and problems (see clues about such on pp. 24, 28, 208-209 of Collins' book), I think that he tried to take upon himself the name of Jesus Christ as best as he could. Just read and ponder the about 140 marvelous scriptural references "in the section entitled Orffyreus' declaration of faith" (see Appendix B or pp. 228-230 in Collins' book) which many references (also in parable fashion) contain many mature symbolic references of his pendulum, his personal life, his faith in God, and further relations between man and God possibly associated with the pendulum. By mature symbolic references I mean that they are from a perspective of a complete or a fully working Bessler pendulum. I have not been able to find all the Bessler references but I assume that the ones I cannot find are comparably valuable to the ones that I could locate. I have not been able to find Micha. 6:8, Sap. 2:20, Sap. 6:19-20, Luc. 21:24, and Thren. 3:41. I do not currently think that I should discuss much about my views of "decoding" the many Bessler scriptural references in this paper, as this paper is already getting long. The reader will just have to make their own discoveries regarding Bessler's many scriptural references. I will also not comment much on inherent symbolism of the working pendulum itself, though as I see it, there appears to be much for the diligently thoughtful reader to discover along this line. Because of such remaining uncovered symbolism, I do not believe that I have completely interpreted Bessler's "little book" which rich symbolism may explain why Bessler called it his "little book". It would just keep expanding into a huge book from its "little book" symbolic beginning if one were to let it be further opened. Even being expanded to some extent it curiously still remains a "little book" as there is much more of the symbolism within the completed or functioning Bessler pendulum itself remaining to be expanded and spoken about.


Literary Forms. Before I give my partial interpretation of Bessler's "little book," I think I need to write somewhat of literary forms of importance in the "decoding" or rather interpretation of his "little book" parable. It is interesting that some of the ancient literary forms that have been discovered to be in The Book of Mormon also seem to appear in Bessler's "little book." As to why this should be, I can partly guess that Bessler, the avid student and scholar, was in Collins' book pp. 25-26, 185, 190 seen to be an intermediary between the Jesuit priest and the elderly Rabbi in Prague. Collins wrote on his p.25, 'As was his custom, Orfyreus extracted as much knowledge as he could from the old man, learning something of Hebrew, and ancient Hieroglyphics, "the language of nature and the writings of angels".' It seems quite reasonable that the association with the Rabbi may have in part allowed Bessler to acquire some highly specialized knowledge of little known ancient literary forms. These ancient literary forms may include Hebraic poetry, allegory, figurative language, imagery, and symbolic types. See the Encyclopedia of Mormonism (1992) under the heading "Book of Mormon Literature" pp. 181-185. I think that Bessler's "little book" is an allegory having at least two levels of meaning. See the translated allegory written by Zenos (about the tame and wild olive trees) in Jacob 5:2-77 as an excellent example of allegory. The literal level of meaning in Bessler's "little book" is curious (it is compact and on its surface it doesn't flow very smoothly when compared to the long allegory of Zenos which smoothly and "vividly incorporates dozens of horticultural details as it depicts the history of God's dealings with Israel") but it is the most hidden symbolic levels that tells with near universal scope the real story about what is going on in Bessler's pendulum after the textual surface symbols are properly understood. Under the "Poetry" subcategory is listed such other things as line forms, parallelism and chiastic patterns. Regarding line forms, "Book of Mormon texts shift smoothly from narrative to poetry" as seen at the long dash in Alma 7:9. This sort of thing is seen in Bessler's "little book" in the smooth transition from the beginning narrative portion to the chiastic poetry proper portion. Regarding parallelism, though not the synonymous parallelism of say 2 Ne. 9:52 "... pray unto him continually by day, and give thanks unto his holy name by night, ...", Bessler's "little book" has many hidden parallelisms as for example "The rain drips down. Snow falls." which among other things is used to compare and contrast the change of state in the torque governor wheel.

The Chiasmus. The chiasmus (an a-b-b-a pattern) or the extended chiasmus (a-b-c-c-b-a) and so forth may be seen in The Book of Mormon in such examples as Alma 41:13-14,and Alma 36:1-30 which therefore creates much emphasis on its also chiastic center in Alma 36:17-18. I am not sure how many extended chiastic levels there are in Alma 36:1-30 but there are many (noting that Cracroft, as mentioned below, seems to have done a quite reasonable analysis of the major chiastic levels). Another example of these extended chiastic structures may be seen in The Holy Bible as in Lev. 24:13-23 which also contains an inner chiasm in Lev. 24:17-21. The chiasmus by its nature tends to survive translation quite well and can allow the author of a chiasm to focus special attention on its very center. Bessler has apparently carefully placed a gem or nugget of truth at the very center of his chiasmus. This knowledge gem is apparently the idea of his new wheel-pendulum entity. If the interior extended levels are indented more than the exterior levels, then the left edge of the chiasm can look somewhat like the left edge of a large X or the capitalized Greek letter chi. See the indented examples of the chiasmus on p. 167 in the section "Book of Mormon Authorship" in the Encyclopedia of Mormonism.


If the chiastic indentations were done differently instead of an "X" one could get a diagonal going across a circle as with say "/" or "\". Another way of thinking of the situation is that each of the seven chiastic levels might be thought of as the two endpoints of going across a circle, as with going across a circle to encode the seven letters of BESSLER into ORFFYRE or vice versa. I have tried to see if I could get an exact physical correspondence between (1) the encoding of BESSLER in going across the circle and (2) the physical transitions in the working of the Bessler pendulum. I have at most seen loose symbolic correspondence but nothing like an exact map. I have found partial mappings but nothing complete. I suppose that an important idea is that the encoding symbolically shows energy going across the circle at various times in the operation of the pendulum. There may be a full physical map according to the encoding of BESSLER and the ordering of Bessler's hidden chiastic structure (or the workings of Bessler's pendulum) but I have not found it. Maybe someone else can view it just right to see a full physical map where I have not succeeded. I have found that every other of the eight xs (or Greek letters chi) that Bessler placed at the end of some of his Germanic poetic lines (for some reason) had much relevance with respect to his chiasm. His choice of the symbol "x" almost gives away what he is up to (though I wonder if the use of "x" or the Greek letter chi to describe the structure now called the chiasmus was expressed by some people prior to the time of Bessler). Three of them correspond exactly to the chiastic boundaries I found and a fourth one is at the end of the line whose beginning is at the very center of his chiasmus (with respect to the center of his ten line gem). A fifth x is placed at the end of the line that corresponds to the exact center of the 55 line Germanic poetry proper portion of his "little book". A sixth x if inverted from the end of the second to last line to the end of the second (or even the first) line would then correspond to an exact chiastic boundary according to my analysis. I haven't come up with even any far fetched explanations for the locations of the last two xs which could suggest that I don't fully understand why he placed the xs as he did, but there are still clues in that (1) the total number of xs (ie. eight) exactly corresponds to the seven total number of chiastic levels plus the center gem level, (2) there are also 50 /s marked in his poetry proper which would be enough to set his poetry into 51 or almost 52 regions (or twice the number of letters in the German or English alphabet), had he not placed one of his slash marks at the very end, and (3) with the exception of "den dren Reichen" which I discuss below, every chiastic boundary that I have found in the German version corresponds precisely to either an end of a line or a "/" mark. Maybe someone else can finish solving that puzzle from whatever portion of the solution (if any) that I guessed correctly. Maybe I solved the puzzle as far as possible and Bessler threw in enough noise so that a complete analysis of those things alone would not lead to a solution (or in other words one would need to start with the mature solution to find confirmations of the solution correctness).

There are many other references to parallelism and chiasmus associated with Hebraic poetry. See "A Clear Poetic Voice" by Paul R. Cracroft, January 1984 Ensign p. 28-31. In reference to the Book of Psalms, Cracroft indicated, "Scholars and poets have traced Hebraic parallelism for more than two hundred years. Chiasmus, according to John W. Welch, made itself known in the 1930s but burst much more dramatically into public view in the 1960s." Cracroft analyzed some example structures in the Book of Mormon. He analyzed the parallel structure found in verse four of Alma 33 which is typical of the parallelism written in the scriptural-poem by Zenos as found in Alma 33:4-11. Cracroft analyzed the chiastic structures found in Alma 41:12-15, the entire thirty-sixth chapter of the Book of Alma, Mosiah 3:18-19, and Mosiah 5:10-12. In regard to the pre-Mosaic history of the Jaredites, Cracroft said, "I have read and reread the Book of Ether and find in its pages nothing that sounds to me like poetry. It is straight prose. And it should be. Hebraic poetry traces its origins to the Song of Moses, recorded in Exodus 15:1-21." I found chiastic words in Ether 13:12 which suggests that either that chiasm might have just come from the Nephite prophet Moroni or that there is a hint of the chiasmus being known to if not used much by the Jaredite prophet Ether. As another example reference to the chiasmus see "Chiasmus in Mayan Texts" by Allen J. Christenson, October 1988 Ensign p. 28-31. On p. 28 Christenson wrote, "Chiasmus is a rhetorical pattern that matches elements in reverse order; that is, the first element parallels the last, the second element parallels the next-to-last, and so on." The reference shows a simple example given by King Benjamin (found in Mosiah 4:24), "I give not because I have not, but if I had I would give." "Since chiasmus is a pattern, it can function in virtually any language and survive translation." On p. 31, Christenson wrote, "Of the thirty-seven Mayan documents I examined, chiastic patterns abound in sixteen." He noted that "None of the highland Mayan documents composed after 1580 include passages of chiasmus. By that time, the people familiar with ancient hieroglyphic books were, for the most part, gone." A chiasm in Matt. 13:13-18 is diagramed in Chart 129 of Charting the Book of Mormon. Another example of the chiasmus is Hel. 6:7-13 which is diagramed in Chart 133 of Charting the Book of Mormon where it is noted at the center of the chiasm that "The Hebrew word for Lord constitutes the theophoric suffix -yah, which is at the end of the name Zedekiah."


The variation of expression lengths and rhyming in the original German may have been used to hide the more important extended hidden chiasm within Bessler's "little book." Certainly this was not the standard (more easily detected) chiasmus as seen in the above examples from The Holy Bible and The Book of Mormon. The metaphor "For greed is an evil plant." is an interesting thought but better or more complete sense is obtained from its chiastic counterpart. I would suggest that the careful reader study across the constant levels of the chiasm to extract more information about Bessler's pendulum. I started making use of the chiastic structure in the interpretation before I realized that there was even a hidden chiastic level structure. That is I wrote preliminarily of poltergeists in the top portion and not in the lower portion as the interpretation seemed to flow better that way. The use of the chiasmus may appear to make things appear wordy on the surface but the study of the chiasmus can bring out relationships, ideas, and things that would be difficult otherwise to convey in so few words.

This is my guess of the 7th level hidden chiastic structure that I found in the poetry proper portion of Bessler's "little book" (English translation in Appendix A, pp. 225-226 of Collins' book).

(A) For greed ...

___(B) An anvil ...

______(C) A driver ...

_________(D) A runner ...

____________(E) The seer ... snow ...

_______________(F) The bow ... wind.

__________________(G) The cunning cat ...

_____________________(Gem) A wheel ...

__________________(G) All things ... animal,

_______________(F) vegetable or matter ...

____________(E) Saturn,

_________(D) Mars and

______(C) Jupiter are ...

___(B) Even the ...

(A) But softly! ...

This is my guess of the three levels of partially hidden chiastic structure that on 14 October 2000 I noticed were outside Bessler's "little book."

(0) ORFFYREUM [on title page of Apologia or Collins p. 183]

___(1) SenDIhrDanaVChnoChVnVerstanDIg

______(2) Matth. XV, vs. 16

_________ 1717 ... [another chiasm??] ...

_________ 1717

_________ Bessler's "little book" [chiasm]

______(2) Matth. XV, v. 16

___(1) SenDIhrDanaVChnoChVnVerstanDIg

(0) [circle drawing at the end of Apologia or Collins p.189]


The expression in early 18th century German "den dren Reichen" must have been well understood as referring to "the three kingdoms (animal, vegetable or matter)" (in that order) or at the very least that is how the superb English translation reads in Collins' Appendix A. There was thus not a separate chiastic level split out between vegetable and matter because the order that he discussed them in the first part of his hidden chiastic poetry was vegetable merging into matter followed by animal and not in the order matter and vegetable followed by animal (which would have been required for a split out). This means that I can only detect seven levels of the hidden chiasmus which is also the same number of letters as in his name (Bessler) or the number of days in a week or the number of letters for the notes on the usual musical scale. Animal got its own level split out in level G. As further evidence or emphasis that Bessler meant or intended that matter was the third kingdom being spoken of in his expression "den dren Reichen", we see that following that expression he specifically uses the "matter" words "Schwesel/Salz/Mercurius" and then "Elementen" prior to his next chiastic level. The implied vegetable-matter words at the top portion of chiastic level F are [wooden?] bow, [grain? within horse bellies], flail, [thresher's grain], [wooden?] clubs, columns, and wind. The animal words at the top portion of chiastic level G are cat, mice, dog, tail, and paws.

The following show brief descriptive captions that could be associated with each chiastic level to help the reader understand better what is basically going on at each level:

(0) Orffyrean technology fundamental principles/specifications,

(1) First and Last's question as applied to 1717 invention,

(2) second or inner-repeated more-symbolic reference to the Lord's question,

(A) visual overview and invention-protection or symbolic-protection from greed of the world,

(B) how the energy is initially extracted by the pendulum,

(C) the large sprocket wheel (or large Orffyrean contributors),

(D) the small sprocket wheel (or small Orffyrean contributors),

(E) the torque governor sprocket wheel (or middle size Orffyrean contributors) including sensor for stopping it, its physical properties, and mechanisms for stopping it,

(F) plant and matter comparisons for overview details of energy extraction from the torque governor sprocket wheel, propagation to the other wheels and pendulum, and roller bearing properties,

(G) animal comparisons for more overview details of energy extraction from the torque governor sprocket wheel and propagation to the other wheels and pendulum, and

(Gem) properties of the new wheel-pendulum entity (at each symbolic level).

There is much parallelism in Bessler's "little book." This parallelism both helps to hide yet reveal the hidden messages in Bessler's "little book" parable, when they are seen. One can even see parallelism extending into the chiastic captions for levels E, F, and G. Also there are sprocket wheel parallels in the captions for levels C, D, and E.


From Collins pp. 181-183, 189, we see that Bessler wrote in altered early 18th century German on the title page of his Poetica Apologia and at the very end of the booklet (above the shaded circular drawing with unshaded sectors) the letters SenDIhrDan a VChnoChVnVerstanDIg along with their reference Matth. XV, vs. 16 (though in reversed listing order on the final page). Collins noted the odd capitals contain the date DIDVCCVVDI [or DDDCCVVVII ] or 1717 using Roman numerals. The corresponding King James translated words of Jesus to his disciples from Matt. 15:16 are "Are ye also yet without understanding?" Collins noted on p. 182 that 1717 was the year of publication of the pamphlet, and the year of construction of the inventor's largest wheel. Again on p. 227, Collins mentions that on the page prior [to Bessler's "little book"], "he brings to our attention again, the date of 1717." I suspect that the underlying 1717 German words may have been "Send ihr dan auch noch unverstandig?" [On 12 November 2000, during Stake Conference, Mel Miles happened to show me his German script print version of Die Bibel translated by Martin Luther from which I quickly wrote in my journal my observation that Matt. 15:16 (ignoring any b/d transcription errors) contained something like "Seid ihr denn auch noch unverstandig?", where I'm leaving off the umlaut from above the "a" within "unverstandig" and I've shortened its tall "s".] The correct German words coded with 1717 would not have been very puzzling in 1717 to the German speaking people (even without the benefit of the scriptural reference). I think that the parts of the whole coded 1717, recognized during comparison of the unusual expression question with the well understood scripture Matt. 15:16 (comparison according to ignoring interior visual capitalizations, replacing visually similar u's by v's where appropriate, and altering visible spaces where the mature understanding of the early 18th century German question demands it), serves to connect these things while further suggesting in chiastic fashion that there actually is a puzzle to be solved here from the view point of its mature totality if one wants to discover the 1717 secret, assuming one is not as blind as the scribes and Pharisees who came to challenge our Lord. Jesus later responded to his disciples (in Matt. 15:16-20) after Peter's request within Matt. 15:15 of "Declare unto us this parable." Chiastic levels 0, 1, and 2 are progressively more symbolic. Chiastic level 0 plainly shows to those who can see it that one uses portions of circles rolling inside slightly larger radius circles to construct his Orffyrean bearings. Chiastic level 0 also contains more hidden symbolism of how Bessler's pendulum works at many levels.

Anyway, here is my speculative attempt at symbolically decoding or interpreting to a certain extent Bessler's "little book" hidden-chiastic Hebraic-poetic parable or putting some "meat" on to the story. From a technical standpoint, I am guessing that I have decoded at least 90% of the technical specifications regarding the Bessler pendulum. I suppose that I specify almost all the major "whats" that need to be done though I am a little uncertain on some of the implementation specific "hows" for some of them being done. This interpretation comes by much pondering and study. Please refer to the speculative front figure at the beginning of this paper as I think it should help the reader understand what Bessler or Orffyreus was trying to speak about in his pageantry of words and symbols originating from the completely functioning or mature invention only. Please keep in mind, as you read these next speculatively interpreted paragraphs until the end of this section, that the words "my" or "I" are intended to be with respect to Bessler (or Orffyreus or Orffyres).


A Little Book Interpretation. I, Orffyreus, ask thee the words of our Lord God, (Q5) "Are ye also yet without understanding?" as we read in Matth. XV, vs.16. Those with a mature understanding of my perpetual mobile of 1717 will see the physical evidence before them of my completed invention in my little book poetic proper. If you understand, then you will be able to understand my words. Those with penetrating questions regarding my invention should ask such questions and they will in many cases receive answers from this little book. My little book starts out small but it grows considerably as the valuable symbols are partially expanded. This expansion grows in part according to the extension of "my little book" to include this entire 1716-1717 booklet of mine, Poetica Apologia. My deeds will be revealed according to God's will but with the help of God they will not be revealed before I am willing, though in hindsight it will be quite clear that I did and wrote of them earlier. My deeds and inventions will begin to be revealed when people begin to catch the vision of my invention. I have written my little book riddle so that only with a mature or complete understanding of how my invention actually works, can one fully understand or appreciate why I have chosen the symbols that I have chosen. With proper understanding, many portions of my little book can be viewed according to many levels symbolically. Hearken to the scriptures for further help in the symbolic interpretations. If anyone lacks a mature understanding of my invention, he will need to speculate about the truth of my invention and see if my little book confirms his speculations. If anyone wants to guess about the truth of my invention, he needs to carefully ponder upon the loosely-depicted symbolically-rich drama of words that I now cause to rain down upon him from above (with each rain drop from heaven representing a portion of the total picture of the shower). A mighty shower can begin with just a few properly understood dew drops from heaven. The riches of the eternities await those who do according to the loving dictates showered down from their Father in heaven.


(A) For the evil of greed has made this little book parable necessary. The greedy bodiless beings of the deep-dark bottomless pit have rarely ceased such activity as gnashing their teeth upon me, spitting upon me, and striving to supplant me by them since I demonstrated to the world that I could provide "perpetual motion". But God has helped me. Yet, what have I done to my mortal enemies to be so harshly treated? Yea, what was my trespass? Nary, save my over-confidence and some pride which I have tried to repent of. Greed (rooted in this world) spreads and grows according to the power given up to the devil. I have fought that greed plant first-hand because I protected my invention from the greed of others. My innermost invention though good (the parts being good are perfectly obedient to God in their own realms as God is perfectly obedient to his own laws) can be compared visually and otherwise to an evil rooted plant in that it has motion within as with a plant. It does not have free unrestricted motion like an unrestrained animal but its motion is restricted to within greatly controlled areas as evil associated beings are greatly controlled or restricted whether or not those controlled are aware of their service to evil. It is hard to choose the good when in bondage to the sin. By their much motion they consider themselves free though they are bound. The effect of the binding bonds may be delayed. You are free to choose for yourself whether you think my invention is good or evil. You are free to make choices but you are not free to choose the eternal consequences of your choices. Repentance or "turning toward God" (made possible by the atonement of the Son of God) is required to correct for choices that were wrong. Though God allows the good and evil to use power according to their choices, the ultimate source of all real power is from God. My invention-plant is exceedingly energy greedy or selfish (or you may say "thrifty" if you prefer) in that it greedily draws energy to itself. It works in layered parts but it fights energy-loss-friction at all places possible, so as not to lose any of the precious energy which in greedy fashion it sips out of the energy-rich raging river of gravity. The covering mantle wheel around my invention helps to visually protect it from the curious-greedy people of this world who would claim my invention as their invention without giving me the one hundred thousand thalers payment that I have asked for my invention and have so patiently been waiting for. The loud sounds (from weights hitting the inside of my 1717 covering wheel) are another way to help protect my invention from such greedy people of this world. As greed begins with or is rooted in evil, so too is the energy source rooted in my pendulum. The torque governor wheel on top looks in static side view like a large edge-toothed flower above the bulbous center "ground" level. The heavy dual-pointed anvil top-portion located at the base of my pendulum invention looks in static side view somewhat like two evil giant root hairs springing forth from the very bottom end of a gigantic evil tapered tap root. From Matt. 15:13 we know that every evil plant shall be uprooted. The anvil top-portion though wisely dual pointed so as not to catch or create much turbulence in the air in either direction, has a dangerous or deadly or evil appearance.

(B) Hammer blows on an ordinary anvil, if not struck straight, can exchange both linear and angular momenta. The many angular momentum exchanges are "balanced" when an anvil is hit straight on. An anvil may be hit many times but the power to strike it comes not from the hammer that strikes but rather from the special person who wields the hammer. The more original power source for the covering wheel is not due to the falling weights hitting the inside surface of my wheel's rim but rather due to my special pendulum enclosed within the wheel. A single-simple "point" mass pendulum delivers and receives a stream of "blows" in a single cycle. The smallest divisible or atomic "point" has an inside portion. Many mass "points" in a pendulum deliver and receive many connected streams of blows in a single cycle. In small part by the rotary motion of the small wheel and chain (very near the anvil-top-portion) within a single cycle of my special pendulum, many "blows" are struck and received parallel to the horizontal portion of the pendulum motion, many blows can be antiparallel to the horizontal portion of the pendulum motion, many blows are exceedingly sharp, and many blows are exceedingly diffuse. Many are early and many are late. Along with this concert of exceedingly many cooperative blows, there is effectively an exchange of linear and angular momentum with its combined surroundings both seen and unseen (including the unseen generally steady powerful outflowing river of swirling energy that we call gravity) like the effect of poltergeists doing work in sealed rooms. As the pendulum swings back and forth, the dual-pointed anvil top-part appears in side view to be receiving many blows. The extended points (within the anvil-top-part) receive (or return) extra energy from gravity and the energy is distributed throughout (or received from) the complete solid swinging pendulum part.


(C) The driver of my special pendulum is the large central sprocket wheel (with a large moment of inertia) and by its large angular momentum it drives the small wheel through its tight chain, the exchanged effects of their internal angular momenta. Because of the large wheel's large diameter and nearly solid mass, it powerfully-steadily, yet consistently-gently keeps up the driving of the chain. The driver's portion of a coach, as seen from the coach's and pendulum's side, can appear as a large rounded object with a small wheel generally below it turning just one way. Reins appear to be going up to the driver. As viewed from the side of the pendulum, to view the coach from slightly in front and above the coach, the driver drives to the left and drives to the right. When the running team veers too far away, the driver appears to pull on the lower set of reins for corrective action as the uncooperative team then goes even further away.

(D) The runner is the small sprocket wheel and it runs both much and speedily in its internal rotation. The distance between sprocket teeth is the same as that between the teeth of the large driver wheel. As the small sprocket wheel goes back and forth in pendulum fashion, it somewhat appears as the nearest leg and foot of a runner as viewed from the side. Sometimes the runner needs to jump over hurdles as he runs. As the runner runs, he flips a foot out and up at the end of each running stride.

(E) From God I saw in night vision of sleep a large-shiny-wheel chain-drive a smaller-shiny-wheel in pendulum fashion with curious pendulum-angular-amplitude increases (after small wheel sudden internal angular speed increases) just slightly after the times of expected pendulum angular extremities (when the small wheel was on the right side). Though I did not see it in that dream those angular extremities of the main pendulum line are "seen" or detected from just beyond the large wheel and this information is quickly passed on to the nearby torque governor sprocket wheel. The torque governor wheel is opposite the small wheel so that the seer (in side view) visually appears to "see" from afar the angular pendulum motion of the small wheel's pendulum main line angular motion. In side view, the head of the seer is a coiled spring with a straight balanced piece of metal attached at the center end of the coiled spring as if it were the front and back brim of a hat. The outer end of the spring coil is attached to the supporting swinging pendulum frame-line. The "eye" of the seer is an Orffyrean "geared" roller bearing at the center end of the coil. If you study the middle of my final figure (that I drew for your benefit at the end of this Apologia), you will see that my roller bearings (when moving rapidly) can appear much like an eye. When the pendulum is not angularly accelerated, the seer "sees" as the brim of the "hat" points toward the small wheel at just the right adjusted angle which is parallel to the main pendulum line. There is a small roller bearing at the furthest end of the hat brim from the small wheel so that it can roll over and depress the hair trigger plate. When the pendulum is angularly accelerated one way, the hat brim is "up" as if there were too much glare (so the seer is unable to see). When the pendulum is angularly accelerated the other way, the hat brim is "down" so that the seer would have his vision blocked by the brim. Only when the hat brim is adjusted just right does the seer see.


The torque governor wheel is then acted on by an energy buyer when it is suddenly stopped at just the right time for just the right price. The energy is bought as the full price of the torque governor wheel stopping is completely paid. The buying can have a much deeper significance of the price our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ, with the knowledge of God, personally paid on behalf of each of us individually (on condition of our own personal repentance) at the time of his atonement and death. The Lord could see the full extent of our sins and knew the full price that somehow must be paid. He voluntarily paid the full price for each of us that we might not have to try to unsuccessfully pay our great and terrible debt from debtor's prison, if we would just repent and give up our sins. As the torque governor wheel has sprocket teeth to allow the buyer to buy, so too did our dear Lord have his choice in carrying out his part of the atonement (according to the will of the Father) and the Son chose to pay the full price. I could speak volumes on this subject but will forbear as the scriptures are available for you to read, further ponder, and heed (and I hope you do so for your benefit, for the benefit of your children, and for the benefit of your fathers to whom your heart should turn lest the Son come and smite the earth with a curse). The buyer rods (or coins as seen in side view of the multiple contact cylinders), when they have stopped the torque governor wheel, are approximately parallel to the axis of the torque governor wheel which is also parallel to my main pendulum pivot axis. The buyer as seen from the side visually gives money in exchange for the bought energy.

As rain drops drip or snowflakes fall, they sweep and cleanse the air of dust particles that would be a detriment to the operation of my pendulum. My pendulum for reliable, long-lasting service should be operated in a clean nearly dust-free environment. There should be nothing that corrodes or is corroded in my pendulum. When the rain drops or snowflakes coming from above strike the dust particles on their sides, the dust particles cause the raindrops or snowflakes to slightly change their internal angular velocity. There is also something that causes snowflakes to rotate rapidly about horizontal axes (beyond chance collisions) as they are formed while falling and this something is associated with falling in gravity through the cold moisture medium. If not for that something, the air and moisture would slow down the snowflakes' rapid rotations.


Gravity causes rain drops to quickly drip down with little noticeable internal rotation. Gravity causes my pendulum to rotate first in one direction and then in the other direction as if gravity pulls down on a great forged drop of solidified liquid metal. As the metal cools, crystalline structures may be formed into a large extended metallic structure of a pendulum. Under specific association conditions of coldness applied to water, gravity with special rotational power can cause specially-formed somewhat-circular-with-regular-protruding-edges frozen miniature-moisture-miracles called snowflakes to interact on occasion with the moisture-matter of air or other snowflakes as they fall and thus change rotations. As snowflakes can be built up in their rotations by either very small crystalline sub-snowflakes or crystalizing water droplets/vapor, the buyer buying causes the snowflake to attach itself to a much larger structure according to the time seen by the seer. Sometimes a snowflake rotates one way and sometimes the other way. My pendulum holds the big snowflake and its pendulum motion directly causes the attached snowflake or torque-governor-sprocket-wheel to slightly rotate as the pendulum rotates. The torque governor wheel when set free of its prior rotating life-state, continues at times to rotate in one direction and at other times to rotate in the opposite direction according to its prior internal angular velocity that it had when it was last rotationally attached to the giant pendulum structure. The rotating snowflake falls after its release as snowflakes fall. When the torque-governor-sprocket-wheel falls, it may simultaneously be suddenly considered to be like a curious mixture of two states of water. It may be considered to be a liquid-frozen raindrop as it has broken away from the large solid giant pendulum and its new ability to rotate allows it to have a more rotationally free-flowing fluid motion. Even with its many teeth, it may also be considered to be like a solid symmetrical snowflake because of its physical shape and its nearly solid internal structure (along with a snowflake being able to rotate about its center of mass). The torque governor wheel rotates on a bearing composed of many free-flowing six-lobed-or-snowflake-shaped structures within each of the six overall snowflake-like arranged rollers about the central Orffyrean axle.

The seer sees the proper time to push the trigger of the tube-shaped "shotgun" which "blasts" the buyer's rods into the big snowflake (or torque-governor-wheel) in an edge-on shot thus "killing" it dead in its tracks. In other words, the seer sensor determines the time when the center of the small wheel is at its local maximum angular amplitude meaning the maximum local angular amplitude of the main pendulum line of the small wheel (with respect to vertical ray going down from the center of the pendulum). That local maximum angle occurs when the small wheel is at its local highest height. Suddenly an impulse springs forth in the form of mechanically sent forth buyer rods to stop the torque governor wheel from rotating so that the torque governor wheel suddenly has no visible rotation relative to the main pendulum line.

(F) Just after this buyer "blast" stops the torque governor wheel, the lower portion of the tight chain (going around the large and small wheels) suddenly slightly twangs (in going even tighter) like a string on a wooden bow goes taunt as the bow ends try to go apart suddenly. This causes the small wheel to suddenly either increase or decrease its angular speed (depending on the situation but in no case is the small wheel allowed to go to zero angular speed relative to my working pendulum).

Eventually when the torque governor wheel is later released (as it is at its top elevation or as the small wheel's center is at its bottom elevation) it will then (by retaining its internal angular velocity) acquire angular speed (relative to the pendulum as the pendulum begins to lose angular speed). This torque-governor-wheel's acquired slow angular speed and rotations within as seen from the side could be compared to the motions as seen from above of a great tightly-packed herd of fat and lazy horses which wander aimlessly round and round going nowhere in particular but they are "fat" in that they do have much energy of rotation or they may be considered plump with all the energy-grass-grain overstuffed into their slowly moving/rotating horse bellies. The size of the horse herd is truly great as there are as many as the number of atoms in the torque governor wheel. The horse bellies would still wander or rotate internally even a little after the bow twangs. On one pendulum half cycle the horses will slowly and aimlessly rotate around in one direction and then in the opposite direction on the next half cycle.


This aimless energy may be tapped by scholarly stopping the torque governor wheel using the middle of the long handle end of a thresher's flail (instead of the usual short and stout beating swiple or swingle end that threshers normally use to beat their grains with) at just the right time. The long handle end of the flail must be long enough to span between the two supports (one support line on each axle end for the three wheels) constituting the supporting framework structure centered about the theoretical main pendulum line. Like yet unlike the thresher's flail, the swingle end of the flail handle is anchored by a roller bearing to one side of the supporting framework. The long handle end of the flail must be narrow enough in thickness to fit between the sprocket teeth (which are on the peripheral edge of the torque-governor-wheel) but sturdy enough so that without bending it is able to stop the torque-governor-wheel when the long end of the flail is rapidly shot or rather sent between teeth of the torque-governor-wheel. If necessary, a larger distance between the sprocket teeth on the torque governor wheel may be used. With my last pendula, I increased the flail handle's structural stability near its middle and so allowing it to go between multiple teeth simultaneously (calling the multiple portions of the middle flail rod the buyer's rods).

My Orffyrean sprocket wheels within my Orffyrean roller bearing (which allows my torque governor wheel to rotate with little friction for both very small and very large angular speeds, whether or not the torque governor wheel is heavily loaded) as viewed from the side, may be compared to side views of many children playing with very heavy clubs among tall broken columns. The strongest of the children can not lift the lightest of the clubs. Still, each child can swing (or you might call it "step" as it uses a club as a "leg") from the top of one broken column to the top of the next broken column by positioning his heavy club on the ground between the two close columns and holding on to the handle end to swing over to the top of the next column. Then he rotates the handle end of his club to maneuver it between his current column and his next intended column so that he can again "step" or swing a small angle over to the top of the next intended broken column. If the clubs are even heavier by being double-ended, then instead of rolling them to the next position, they may be alternatively transported between the columns by switching ends. A double club may be moved in seesaw fashion by leaning it against the current broken column that the child is on and rolling it over the top of the column (assuming that there is enough room for the child to stay on top of the column). The double club is pivoted with a circular motion with one end going up while the other end goes down. This idea eventually extends to a giant multi-lobed Orffyrean sprocket wheel at times rolling over the tops of smoothed down broken columns with rolling lobes touching the ground as the clubs did. Then the idea extends to many sprocket wheels. As the ends of the children's clubs are gently rounded (so as not to sink or cut into the ground), so are the ends of the Orffyrean sprocket lobed teeth gently rounded in one direction to bear the load while slightly rotating just a little and while maintaining static friction contact without slipping. The children must never put lubrication on the ends of their clubs prior to such play so that they are safely born across each gap without danger of their clubs slipping. They must never play among the columns when the ground is slippery nor when the tops of the columns are slippery.


When freely rotating, the torque governor wheel consists of a nimble clockwise flipping major acrobat and a nimble counterclockwise flipping major acrobat. In thought, each major acrobat comes as quickly as the wind (as the torque governor wheel is suddenly freed by its prior major shadow boxer's rapid departure). Each major acrobat (as quickly as the wind) departs as a freshly arrived major shadow boxer suddenly appears and (with its boxing punch) holds fast an image in the likeness of the departed major acrobat. The acrobatic torque-governor-wheel was suddenly stopped by a sudden shadow boxing strike with a flail pivoting arm. The shadow boxing strike though held a long time suddenly ends approximately when the angular amplitude of the main pendulum line corresponding to the center of the little wheel suddenly leaves the shaded or shadowed region near the bottom of the circle that I drew for your benefit at the end of this Apologia which contains this little book. The main pendulum line is changing most rapidly in angle near this bottom point in the cycle. The major shadow boxer flees as quickly as thought when its boxing strike is withdrawn (for fear of retaliation by the fresh newly arrived major acrobat). The major shadow boxing strike and later withdrawal each must be quick so as not to create much energy-losing-friction nor to rub across more than one sprocket gap in the torque governor wheel (which otherwise freely turning wheel does not have a chain going around it). Near full strength power production for the working pendulum, the major shadow boxing begins when the center of the small wheel's angular amplitude is at a lower shaded edge of one of the upper light sectors of that circle that I drew for you at the end of this Apologia. Please note that after the shadow boxing strike which stops the acrobatic turns of the torque governor wheel, the always turning little wheel's center angular amplitude curiously increases from its stopped position (in apparent defiance of gravity) to near the top of the white sector of my figure before stopping, returning, and going down through the shadowed region in my figure. When initially not yet at full strength of power production, the two upper unshaded sectors should be drawn lower (though not at the same height) so that their lower portions coincide with the main pendulum line angles of expected-maximum main-pendulum-line angular-amplitude for the center of the small wheel. When the major shadow boxing strike is finally suddenly ended, the slow acrobatic turns and flips of the torque-governor-wheel are allowed to return. Later the immediately fleeing energy and angular momentum departing with the major acrobat (because of its newly arrived major shadow-boxer) in one portion of my pendulum are communicated by impulse as fast as or faster than the wind to the portions of my pendulum that are then able to receive them.

Near the center or belly of the major acrobat or the torque governor wheel is an army of small acrobats and small shadow boxers used without contention in their ranks to construct the central roller axle, the six surrounding small rollers, and the outer Orffyrean sleeve of my standard Orffyrean roller bearing. Though of sometimes differing sizes, the other roller bearings for my pendulum were similarly constructed to the roller bearing in my torque governor wheel. If you were in Gera or Draschwitz when I displayed the first two versions of my wheel each covering their own versions of my special pendulum, you could have heard the many series of very rapid tapping sounds (almost scratching sounds) that my armies of small acrobats and small shadow boxers made in my Gera wheel as I hadn't masked their sound at that time. [See p.32 in John Collins' book for a reference to the scratching noise coming from within the Draschwitz wheel.] People were not aware of my special roller bearings then and did not even consider that my special prototype roller bearings could possibly be making such unusual sounds. I will just tell you here about the army near the center of the torque governor wheel and you can similarly apply the discussion to other Orffyrean "geared" roller bearings used in my invention.


My Orffyrean roller bearing consists of a main Orffyrean roller axle, six Orffyrean rollers about the main Orffyrean roller axle, and an Orffyrean sleeve surrounding the rollers. Some of my enemies accused me of using a split axle. They were quite wrong but I did not breathe out the fact that each roller axle had approximately its radius split into two levels according to the use of many Orffyrean sprocket lobes and many Orffyrean sprocket holes. Each of the rollers surrounding the roller axle similarly had its radius split into two levels according to the use of many Orffyrean sprocket lobes and many Orffyrean sprocket holes (even though there are only six Orffyrean lobes on each standard Orffyrean sprocket wheel according to my Orffyrean technology as somewhat suggested by the six ends of my three stress lines in my circular figure at the end of this Apologia). The surrounding rollers were so constrained that they never touched each other. A roller only touched the inner roller axle and the outer sleeve. The outer sleeve had its radius split into two levels according to the use of many Orffyrean lobes and holes facing inward. For the roller axle, there were slight separations in angle from one Orffyrean sprocket wheel to the next. There were appropriate small angular offsets in sprocket wheels composing the rollers and in sprocket sleeve wheels composing the outer sleeve. The six lobes on a standard Orffyrean sprocket wheel change with orientation (as fast as imagination) from being a reflected feather fencer (with head above, with feet below, and with a rounded outward feather-thrust to his side) to a nimble acrobat pivoting with a ball-tail (with head, arms, and legs all outstretched as it rolls along). A lobe of a small acrobat or a small shadow boxer (or feather fencer) comes, then gently as a feather bears a static load or punch without slipping of the tiny feather fencer lobe, gently withdraws its tiny lobe, and then departs. If a sprocket wheel is not the end one on a roller, then it is proceeded by a neighbor taking its turn bearing the load and then followed by its other neighbor bearing the load. They each take their turn when it comes up. A repeated series of such Orffyrean sprocket wheels helps ensure that the supported wheel will not wobble as could happen if there is only support at one point on the roller bearing at a time (but I have even more repetition). All the sprocket wheels composing the central roller axle are attached with respect to each other. All the standard sprocket wheels composing a single roller are attached with respect to each other. All the inner facing lobes in the sleeve wheels (composing the outer sleeve) are attached with respect to each other. If there is ever an alignment problem (which should be seldom), then there is some slight self-corrective rubbing (of thin layer of silver rubbing upon a thin layer of gold) between the lobes and lobe holes or lobe sides in say a roller and the axle that puts the roller back into alignment (whether the correction is along the axis or tangential). If the sleeve ever stops relative to the central Orffyrean axle, then the rollers remain frozen in place. My roller bearing should be operated in a clean environment without lubrication added so that only the pivoting-rotating rollers appear to "slip" to provide load bearing. The load bearing surfaces generally do not slip during the actual load bearing.


(G) When the torque governor wheel is allowed to slowly rotate again, it may be compared to a cunning cat quietly creeping upon its mice its claws down (steadily rotating yet not contacting the ground) and its teeth exposed surrounding the moving mice (each fat mouse following the tail of the fat mouse ahead of it). The cat is cunning in that it knows with patience the mice will have nowhere else to move, save round and round inside a stopped circle. The cat is silent with no chain attached about it, though there is the faint purring or scratching sound coming from its Orffyrean roller bearing. Its center is moving down from the top as it heads toward the teeth entrapped mice, which nice juicy energy-rich mice are seized suddenly by the cat's teeth when the torque-governor-wheel is suddenly stopped. By teeth, this means that energy and angular momenta are transferred out through multiple teeth as a reinforced thresher's flail bar (with room to suddenly stop multiple teeth simultaneously) is used to distribute the impulse load. Some of the energy and angular momenta come later as the cat needs to swallow the moving mice. When the mice are digested, they are broken down into very small pieces which contain and provide delayed energy.

There is a submicroscopic view of the cat and its mouse (not quite according to the atomic viewpoint of Democritus). The cat (and there are very many such) follows along with its mouse, surrounds the mouse, and matches its direction and slow speed. The motion looks locally similar to a portion of a cycloid or a projected portion of a stretched spring. Soon after the center of the cat's translational circular motion stops, the cat suddenly stops moving/rotating and begins to swallow/digest the still internally rotating mouse within the cat. The delayed swallowing/digesting corresponds to the fat juicy mouse gently giving up its plentiful internal residual angular momentum.

The small wheel situation may be compared to a dog that is held by a chain (with respect to the center of its large circular continually changing dog huts) which because of the constraint of the chain is allowed to travel only in a circular arc about the center of the large sprocket wheel. Because of the circular arc, the dog creeps vertically out from the circular dog huts with little vertical distance change initially and during the final creeping away. With the dog going just as far as the chain will stretch, this means that the chain is stretched tight. The young playful dog (or in part the small wheel) friskily goes back and forth and it plays with its things by the small wheel always having internal angular velocity, changing its internal angular velocity, even grabbing its chain in its teeth, and dragging the chain along. With its clawed paws it even tries to grab the air beyond its circular boundary. The arc of the opposite end of the small wheel's path is like the end of the dog's tail being wagged. The small wheel dog happily goes just past its maximum expected angular extent (or just beginning to return from its temporary maximum) as if it were doing a trick by slowly bending down a little to go over-through a raised hoop (with one front paw up and the other front paw down) and then is rewarded by bursts of energy (immediate and gently delayed) on its clawed paws by the suddenly stiff though previously foolish topsy-turvy major-acrobatic torque-governor-wheel, the frozen striking major-shadow-boxer, and the visible portion of the army of small acrobats and shadow boxers which all appear to gaze with frozen stares at the dog from afar. The initial sharp pat on the clawed paws during the middle of its trick, stretches part of the tight chain tighter and immediately infuriates the dog which so causes its teeth to be immediately set in rapid change of internal angular motion but when it can not find any troublemaker (there only being stiff fops gazing from a far distance) it forgivingly goes back to its previous playful routine. The gentle delayed portion of the pat on the paws caused the paws to be gently lifted up to a new height prior to it going back down.


There is a submicroscopic view of the dog and its dog hut. The dog is the small heavy part within its light atomic dog hut within the anvil. There are many such dogs and dog huts. As the dual-pointed anvil goes down, the dog is slowly stretched or rather displaced slightly outward from the center of its dog hut as much as the attachment to the covering hut will allow. The dog has internal rotation as he goes back and forth. He rotates and slows rotation as he interacts with his surroundings. The rotation direction depends on which direction he is going. The dog with respect to its hut receives angular momentum from gravity. The dog is displaced downward and outward like wagging a tail. Then the dog goes back up as if it is going to creep through a hoop. After going over the maximum, the dogs are rewarded by initially sharp and gently delayed pats of angular momentum energy coming from the stiff fops in the torque governor wheel (which delayed energy came from all the mice being swallowed, digested and rotationally slowed down by their respective atomic cats).

(Gem) I see that you have penetrated to the very center of my riddle and so you are now with a level of understanding that I asked you about on the title page of my Poetica Apologia. Yes, this is the gem of truth that I hid in plain sight for all to see who could see. A new type of "wheel" (composed of just a large and a small sprocket wheel surrounded by a tight chain) comes to us by my nocturnal vision (of just that portion of God's pendulum) from God while I slept. (Q6) Is this "wheel" really a wheel (since its rim is a chain and thus it does not have the rim of a normal wheel)? It revolves about the center of the large wheel and at the same time it revolves around itself but there are no other such identical "wheels"(composed of all those three things) inside or connected outside of it. This "wheel" (or you may now call it a wheel-pendulum since you clearly know my secret) does not have any weights, wind or springs. When this wheel-pendulum is seen from one half side view with maximum visual exposure to that side of its rotating wheel faces, it is as glorious as a spread tail peacock. As peacock feathers spread upward and outward when displayed, then with respect to the glorious-clean-shining rapidly rotating small wheel (which your eye is often attracted to by its regular rapid increases in internal angular speed) there is a glorious peacock display effect that spreads in scanning fashion upward and outward to the large glorious-clean-shining rotating wheel and beyond. Also with respect to the center of the large wheel, the small eye wheel of the wheel-pendulum in pendulum fashion goes back and forth somewhat like a peacock display as viewed upside down. For planar constrained rotations, it can turn as much as desired to the right or to the left. For the same planar constrained rotations, it can rotate with any reasonable angular velocity about the center large wheel. For the same planar constrained rotations, it can individually have rotations of the large and small wheels according to any reasonable angular velocity. It can do all of those rotations whether or not the wheels are laden with balanced masses or whether or not the supporting structure for the "wheel" is laden with mass. The laden dead mass required below or beyond the small wheel could at times represent a kingdom without glory.


As you can see in my final figure according to its self-referential manner, my new type of wheel appearing applies to many more angular momentum transition levels (for a total of six working levels) than just the obvious large mantle wheel level (which provides external power though it does not have a normal rim as it connects to nothing) or the large wheel-pendulum level within. With thought given to it, it also applies to the smaller level of a large Orffyrean roller axle with a momentarily-considered just-touching smaller Orffyrean roller so that its rim is somewhat like a numeral 8 with regular periodic contact. It also applies to the smaller level of the circular middle of an Orffyrean sprocket wheel with momentarily-considered just a small connected Orffyrean lobe which lobe can act as a bearing even though the entire rim is rigid without being circular. It also applies to the smaller level of an atomic "cat" or atomic "dog hut" with a small rotating "mouse" or "dog" respectively inside. My final figure includes the many tiny white dots which I drew in the background of the black sectors (and which light dots can represent the final two working new wheel transition levels). Energy and angular momentum are sent forth as a glorious peacock's tail. Gravity itself as it goes to interact with matter may be thought of as rapidly penetrating energy and angular momentum or sent forth rotating new interacting wheels of light-spirit-matter for my last working new wheel level. I put a bright dot of light from God at the very center of my final figure which dot also represents the far other side of my symbolic three-dimensional roller figure. To this point I have typically shown you glimpses in my riddle of portions of my invention (or God's invention since all things belong to God) as you could generally view three-dimensionally that portion of my invention sideways or full-face.

(G) Each thing belongs to either the animal (F) or vegetable or matter kingdom. My pendulum invention is exclusively made of matter as you can plainly see by examining the physical parts which I have described before you in my little book. Animals and plants are made of matter but they have something extra (spirit that is passed down to them). In the analogies that I make in this little book, there are living as well as material comparisons that can be made to parts of it. It almost has a life of its own, as fine things working within it are important to it working. People are not things and so do not fall within the three kingdoms of things but I even give my invention some human-like partial analogies in this little book. You should be able to see how impressed I am with my invention and you should be impressed with it as well. I think this is Godly zeal instead of pride as the something-extra that it has comes not to us from the carnal me but to us from God. I would never have constructed my invention without the explicit help from God. Above and below I allude to some symbolic comparisons that are in regard to even higher kingdoms than that of mortal man.

The physical evidence for my invention was placed before you on the before side of my hidden-chiastic poem. The physical evidence for my invention is placed before you as I continue stating it to you in my partly-opened little-book hidden-chiastic poem.


I can respectively compare sulphur, salt, and mercury to the planets: Venus (as it is hot within its white cloudy wrapping), Earth (as it is the planet with a surface covered mainly by salty ocean water), and Mercury (as it is the quickest of planets with respect to its Earth apparent period). These planets could be symbolically compared to the wheels of my pendulum. The torque governor wheel when most effective has two "fiery" stops per cycle as compared to the two states of Venus (the morning and evening "star") which states are stopped by close apparent approach to the bright-hot Sun. Prior to one fiery stop, Venus is rotating away from observers here on the earth and prior to the other fiery stop Venus is rotating toward observers here. The crescent form that Venus can take on suggests that my Orffyrean mechanics are needed for low friction especially for preserving the internal rotation of the torque governor wheel. There is a connection between center rotation and internal rotation. The large wheel corresponds to the Earth which has massive periodically steady ocean currents when viewed hereon. The tidal currents ebb and flow according to the motion of surrounding bodies. The small wheel of quick and quicker states correspond symbolically to Mercury which has briefly visible morning and evening "star" states. The actual tidal contributions (on the Earth) of Mercury and Venus are negligibly small for most practical purposes. My pendulum is most practical. There are different orders of approximations in the tidal situations as there are different orders of approximations in my layered pendulum. The Moon has larger tidal contributions (on the Earth) than Mercury or Venus. The Moon when observed as a crescent in the morning and evening has two states (which are respectively its waning and waxing states). The dual pointed anvil when at the sides has two crescent states. As the Moon keeps one side constantly facing the Earth, so too does the anvil present just one side to the large center wheel. As the Moon appears to rotate around the Earth, so too does the anvil appear to rotate with respect to the large center wheel. The Sun with its large tidal contributions (on the Earth) plays the role of the Earth as Earth's gravity indirectly affects the large wheel of my pendulum.

Though my pendulum is actually a complete whole as the body is actually a complete whole, I can roughly compare the wheels with parts of the body. The torque governor wheel which supplies pulsing locally available energy to the pendulum could be thought of as a heart. The large wheel keeps up the energy supply as the body's large circulatory system. The small wheel corresponds to the quick blood. All material life needs a spiritual-energy source, a bodily repository to convey the spiritual energy, and life's spirit. More life comparisons can be made with (1) God the eternal I AM or Jehovah or Jesus Christ, being the only Son of the Father in the flesh bringing renewal of life through the word of God, (2) God the Father being the Father of all our spirits before we came here (and through Adam and Eve, prior to the planned fall, an ancestor of our bodies though not in the corruptible flesh) including those who are the salt of the earth, and (3) God the Holy Ghost being the "messenger" from God quickening man. All such are necessary with respect to the eternal life of corruptible man else corruption sets in. All material motion requires a source of the energy, a body to store the energy, and the energy of motion. If any of the three are missing, there is no new motion without which friction sets in bringing about an eventual stop in the motion. Power is continually supplied by God to all the matter and spirit-matter in both good and evil choosing people, though the evil (with proportionally reduced spiritual mobility) may not consider that God knows what they do, think, will think, and will do. The comparisons between God and all things testifying of God continue without end though the words of my "little" book temporarily must stop soon out of necessity.


With the prior motion considerations, low friction elements are needed to keep things moving and rotating and to reduce wear. Though my pendula were prototypes using various inexpensive shortcuts, when two metal surfaces must gently rub, it is best to only let thin layers of the high quality metal elements gold and silver rub where possible to have little wear. The qualities of the elements also means that the surfaces should be very clean and dust/dirt free which is another reason for my enclosing my invention by its mantle covering. This will help keep contamination away from the high quality gold-silver interfaces. Except for the thin, well-bonded surfaces of my roller bearings, their interiors should be made of the same strong, high quality metal as outside the bearings to avoid problems with thermal expansions.

(E) When gazing up at nearly aligned Saturn, Jupiter and Mars we would often see a large crescent shaped object in the night sky called the Moon (which crescent object could then be compared to the crescent-shaped anvil weight in my pendulum). In the same order as with sulphur, salt, and mercury, the wheel qualitative sizes, separation distances, and ordering with respect to gravity when aligned could be represented by Saturn (for the middle size torque governor wheel), Jupiter (for the large central wheel), and Mars (for the small wheel). There are approximately equal distances from the center of the large wheel to the centers of the other two wheels. They could represent God the Son, God the Father, and God the Holy Ghost. God the Son, God the Holy Ghost, and God the Father are ready to join in any battle for righteousness sake as the glory goes to God the Father. The order of battle energy flow-wise is primarily Saturn, (D) Mars and (C) Jupiter meaning some energy flows from the middle size wheel to the small wheel and then to the large wheel (which is one reason I listed 1 Cor. 10:31 in my declaration of faith). "Saturn, Mars and Jupiter are ready to join in any battle" also means that such planetary type transitioning calculations are necessary for all portions of my pendulum (from the overall planet-like structure to the fine detailed Orffyrean roller bearings). Having the small transition the medium to the large (in both directions) applies to all aspects and levels of my Orffyrean related technology. For example, in my standard Orffyrean roller bearing there is a medium size Orffyrean central roller which is surrounded by six small standard Orffyrean rollers which are contained by a large Orffyrean sleeve.

(B) The energy (and angular momentum) that my pendulum takes in does not lose its influence but spreads itself to every limb and moving part of the pendulum. For rotations with respect to the pendulum, the dark-never-visibly-internally-rotating dead-weight solid-anvil portion of my pendulum takes in energy according to its interaction with gravity and part of the energy is sent to the furthest rigid portion of the furthest limb of the pendulum, as the pendulum falls according to gravity. If that furthest portion of the pendulum is not allowed to move off on its own rotationally, then that energy is in part returned from whence it came, as the pendulum undoes its fall according to gravity. My pendulum pivots from side to side (crawling upward from the depths with each complete cycle) because it was soundly designed by God to do so, as a crab is soundly designed by God to crawl from side to side. Each comes to us from God. As that crab (in the depths) eats to the side according to its motion, my pendulum mouth eats (in microscopic depths) some energy from gravity as it falls to its side according to its motion. The energy would in part be given back if the process were not interrupted. As the anvil portion looks in static side view like a smiling open mouth, we learn from Matt. 15:11 that it is not that which goes into the mouth that defileth but rather that which comes out of the mouth. The energy in gravity goes through solid objects including into and out of my covering wheel. Gravity can penetrate locked rooms though some of its energy can be caused to remain if we can cause it to asymmetrically act upon objects within.


(A) The devil and his host of fallen angels well know what is contained within my covering wheel. Evil as well as good choosing spirits without solid bodies can both go through solid objects and so they both can know how my pendulum works by appropriately passing through my mantle wheel and looking. I have spoken softly of these marvels so that my enemies in mortality would not grow wise about my invention. The devil and his followers (though they do not want this truth revealed to the world) have sorely strived to anger me (often though not exclusively through the scorn, accusations, and figurative spit of disbelief of my mortal enemies) so that I would either not be competition for my mortal enemies or I would reveal my invention to my own personal loss (and they claim that they knew it all along). Though I acknowledge that my pride has many times caused great problems for me as I have yielded to the binding snares of the devil, with my repentance I now do not believe that God requires that I just reveal this thing from God (to a greedy world) by simply casting aside the wheel-mantle-covering of my inner "wheel-pendulum" without being properly paid for my invention. If greed or the power of the devil has such a hold on this world that I am not properly paid, then the world is not yet ready for my invention. The utility of my invention has been demonstrated over and over again, with all (including the most learned) wanting to know, many willing to pay my price after they see it first, but so far none actually paying my price sans prior peek. I worked very hard for the large earthly reward that is properly due to me. Still, the free gift of eternal life (paid for by the precious atoning blood of the Son of God and applied to men according to repentance) is the greatest payment in the service of God. It is this payment that I most desire. The devil will be thwarted in his eternal desires for me despite his buffetings here below because I will continue to follow the gentle promptings and corrections revealed to me from God by the Holy Ghost. Though I almost appeared to apologize to you for not revealing the details of my art at the end of this Apologia [see pp. 181, 189 of Collin's book], there was really no reason to so subjunctively apologize, as you now see I did reveal my arts to those who were not blind. For those who were not blind or for those who could penetrate my parable, I did in a way cast aside the covering mantle that covered my inner working wheel-pendulum (and all other new wheel levels within). My symbolic casting aside the covering mantle-wheel concealing my wheel-pendulum was done to thwart the devil's desire (of keeping the pendulum hidden) without giving away my invention.


I speak softly by not further revealing about the invention so that the enemies of God might not stir up others in anger against misunderstood wisdom concerning the symbolic pendulum from God. This is why this little book will not be opened up or uncovered further at this point. First, the enemies of the all loving God need to be given a chance to be friends of God through repentance. Then they can open it up by themselves if they desire to do so. When you have physically fully uncovered my new wheel-pendulum (whether by purchase or otherwise) and see this miracle from God actually working as I have described, I then uncover for you the more important continued or higher levels of further opening my little book riddle which the devil especially does not want you to solve as you turn to God. The devil does not want you to turn to God in the least amount. The devil wants you to just gently gravitate towards or stick to him while he on very rare occasion might whisper such a lie in the sound of your own thought voice as, "There is no devil." that he might gently lead and bind you with threads and thicker threads until he eventually sees you bound with his mighty chains of dark destruction, except ye repent. There is much more to my pendulum than meets the eye. Still, I warn you not to worship the pendulum as an idol. Use righteous imagination in your pondering further about my or rather God's working symbolic pendulum. Thus, my final question unto thee (from this little book) is quite like the question our Lord and Master, the Great Jew, Jesus the Messiah (even Alpha and Omega) asked in Matth. XV,. v. 16, (Q7) Are ye also yet without full understanding?

(The dark circular figure with dot at center and three white rolling sectors) or Orffyres

Analysis of Bessler's Little Book Parable

Bessler was apparently quite a student of the scriptures and so was able to disguise or hide the meaning of the words of his "little book" parable so though seeing, unprepared others might not see what the words meant, and hearing the words, they might not hear what was meant. See 2 Ne. 16:9-10 which may be compared with Isa. 6:9-10. This is not according to the way of plainness of prophesying as Nephi (who came to the New World from the Old World Jerusalem area prior to the Babalonian captivity) comments in 2 Ne. 25:1-30 relative to the words of Isaiah. In particular, Nephi writes (as we see in 2 Ne. 25:4), ". . . for because the words of Isaiah are not plain unto you, nevertheless they are plain unto all those that are filled with the spirit of prophecy . . ." If people want to increase in their spirituality and so be able to better penetrate words such as those of Bessler, I strongly recommend that they read, reread, and study The Book of Mormon: Another Testament of Jesus Christ, likening the situations and precepts to their own lives and adhering to the precepts found therein. According to the Introduction to The Book of Mormon, the Prophet Joseph Smith said, "I told the brethren that the Book of Mormon was the most correct of any book on earth, and the keystone of our religion, and a man would get nearer to God by abiding by its precepts, than by any other book."


A scripture from The Book of Mormon that comes to my mind with respect to the significance of the Bessler pendulum is 2 Ne. 11:4, "Behold, my soul delighteth in proving unto my people the truth of the coming of Christ; for, for this end hath the law of Moses been given; and all things which have been given of God from the beginning of the world, unto man, are the typifying of him." I thought on 5 September 2000 that I would just look around that verse for any evidence of a chiasmus. I was surprised by what I found. I found that the end of that verse 4 and all of verse 5 are what I call the chiastic gem at the center of a chiasm consisting of that entire chapter 11. My analysis of that chiastic structure is (a) my people, (b) words of Isaiah, (c) my Redeemer, (d) God ... God, (e) my soul delighteth in proving unto my people the truth ... coming of Christ, (gem) see 2 Ne. 11:4-5, (e) my soul delighteth in proving unto my people ... Christ should come, (d) God ... God ... God, (c) Christ, (b) words of Isaiah, and (a) my people. I think somebody went to some effort in constructing that chiasm and gem. Such things provide new ways to consider things with emphasis and viewpoints that might not otherwise be considered. I think Bessler must have expended a large amount of effort in constructing his hidden chiasm and gem. Such things may be somewhat hard to see but one must look for them to find them. One needs to seek to find. (See Matt. 7:7 which is nearly identical to the post-resurrection 3 Ne. 14:7.) As I was surprised by what I discovered, it is clear to me that I need to more seriously study the Book of Mormon to fully dig out the ideas and gems that are contained therein, and to more fully apply these things I find (or have found) in accordance with what I think is Bessler's extended puzzle-challenge to us.

Bessler is saying much in his symbolic language with much parallelism and I have taken the liberty of filling in information gaps so that there is a more complete story being told in his "little book" parable. The completed story contains many repetitions from various viewpoints. I tried to mix the parable symbolism with its symbolic interpretation so hopefully the reader can see where the symbolic interpretation is coming from in his parable. Hopefully I did not force the interpretation of the parable but this could have happened easily. The reader may ponder the interpretation to consider whether or not it is correct. Maybe the reader would want to try to come up with their own interpretation of Bessler's "little book."

I trust that soon we will have working Bessler pendula and so we will in light of them have an additional indication of what was interpreted correctly. I am not sure why I am unable to explain all the mechanical details that Bessler was so capable of (though I suspect I just lack the mechanism training). For example, I do not know about the full details of the "seer" for sensing the correct moment to trigger the "shotgun" to "fire" off the end of the bar which being pivoted will stop the torque-governor-wheel internal rotations when it engages between sprocket teeth. We have an additional clue in that there was no mentioning of a loud occasional sound in the sound unmasked Gera or Draschwitz wheels (see the comment on the scratching noise coming from the Draschwitz wheel on p. 32 of Collins book) so likely the sound of the "firing" of the bar and the stopping of the slowly rotating torque governor wheel was not loud and thus probably not energy inefficient. Maybe the "shotgun" could be a just strong enough tube or cylinder shaped spring which after being triggered would cause the "flail" rod to be sent between the teeth of the torque governor wheel. If that is so, then the flail would need to be retracted and the trigger reset which could mean some wasted energy if not well done. I can not think of a more energy efficient purely mechanical way of doing this but maybe someone, with more thorough mechanism knowledge than I have, can think up a way. I do not know the full details of how the flail bar is retracted at the proper time.


There are predominantly four angular acceleration nulls per pendulum cycle (ignoring the following jerks and the two extra following angular acceleration nulls on each side). Two of them might roughly correspond to the lower beginnings of the two upper light sectors at the end of Bessler's Apologia and two occurrences per pendulum cycle correspond to near the middle of the lower light sector in that figure. It is not clear to me whether energy is extracted during the rearming of the "shotgun" at fixed angular positions or energy is sent to the large wheel and so is linked directly or indirectly to the main axle of the covering wheel. Though not the primary purpose for the circular drawing, I think that Bessler with his multipurpose circle with shaded sectors has shown most of the "when" information for the full efficiency case and the interpretation spoke of the "when" information for all the other cases but it is the "how" that I only have partial information on. Maybe someone who is mechanically gifted has a part to play in this matter. Bessler had studied mechanical details such as these for many years. The time of when the major shadow boxer removes its held boxing strike could correspond to a fixed angular position as I think Bessler suggests in his circular shaded drawing. I suspect that a fairly simple angular position dependent sensor is a toggle type of switch (that only depends slightly on whether the pendulum swing is clockwise or counterclockwise). I don't know if the seer sensor would be responsive enough to the particular angle since it is measured within an accelerated rotational reference frame (and since the vertical angles to be measured are to be measured near the times of maximum rotational speed). If the seer is not responsive enough to sensing vertical angles, then we could just use a simple angular-position dependent sensor. We ought to verify all such speculations by real or simulated experiments to see how well they work in practice.

Orffyrean Technology. I think that the diagram on the last page of Apologia (as shown on p. 189 of Collins' book) served multiple explanation purposes simultaneously. I think that the most important or most detailed purpose is in explaining the Orffyrean sprocket wheel technology. But even for this specific purpose Bessler exploited simultaneity. Bessler does this by "pointing to" the black or white circles representing bearings (by pointing with the three white or short-radius sectors) while also simultaneously explaining that his Orffyrean technology (that is within the bearings) is roll-pivot based. [By comparing Bessler's final figure with my front figure, you may see that Bessler's black and white circular bands in the center of his figure correspond to essentially a long time exposure photograph of an operating Orffyrean roller bearing (where black there represents places of more metal). The bands at the outer edges of Bessler's circle further emphasize Bessler's bearing technology in self-referential nested fashion, as if Bessler were successively saying, "Now, this is what is within my mantle wheel, pendulum, Orffyrean bearing-rollers, Orffyrean sprocket wheels, atom-nucleus interactions, and nucleus-graviton interactions."] The centers of the three white or short-radius sectors are not radiating from the very center of the large circle shown. Within this Orffyrean technology diagram, I measured short radii of about 35mm for the three rolling white sectors of about 25, 26, and 26.5 degrees for an average of about 25.8 degrees. Bessler cleverly drew each sector centered in its rolling so that it was not too obvious that each sector could roll somewhat to do its pivot bearing. With respect to the center of the circle that the sectors roll inside of, I measured a large radius of about 40mm for the contained sectors of about 23, 21.5, and 22.5 degrees for an average of about 22.3 degrees. The angular differences were about 2, 4.5, and 4 degrees so that the average of these differences is about 3.5 degrees. It would thus appear that the contained sectors could pivot by means of rolling by about 3.5 degrees by rolling across about 25.8 degrees with respect to the rolling sector. Thus, using static-contact-rolling pivots of about 3.5 degrees, the point of static contact quickly rolls across about 25.8 degrees. This is one reason why Bessler used words (as translated on p. 225 of Collins' book) that the acrobats and shadow-boxers are as fleet ... as the wind. A small angular pivot gives rapid angular motion of the contact point. As it is a rolling contact, there is static friction but very little energy is lost to this friction as long as there is no slipping of the surfaces with respect to each other. This creates a highly unusual situation of over a small angle there is very little energy lost in pivoting while bearing large loads, essentially independent of the angular rotational speed, as long as no lubrication is used. The acrobats and shadow-boxers (or feather fencers) were also as nimble as the wind. They would gently come down, take their turn of pivot-rolling over a small angle while bearing the load, and then gently depart. As they nimbly departed, one or more of their neighbors would take or begin to take their turn.


As another visual aid to the rolling-without-slipping within Orffyrean technology, take a look at the interesting crescents on the flags of Turkey and Algeria. Of the flags I have personally seen, the flag of Turkey seems to me to be the most capable of illustrating the central principle behind Orffyrean technology. Imagine a solid red cylinder inside a white cylindrical hole as viewed from its circular ends. If the red cylinder is released from a small vertical displacement, maybe you can imagine it rolling back and forth without slipping because it would have very little energy losing friction. The rolling might continue for quite some time as long as the cylinders start and stay in contact without slipping at their instantaneously common tangential planes of contact. The largest circles on the front figure somewhat show this idea. Christopher used this idea in his 2001 science fair project.

Let us look at the Orffyrean situation from a different perspective. Suppose we draw a circle of radius R in a plane. We can draw six circles of radius R that are outside the circle so that they are all tangent to the first center circle and the additional six are each tangent to their two peripheral neighbors. This can be seen using seven circular coins, with each being the same radius R. This can also be seen in the front figure. Using the coins, we could imagine that we fill in the six somewhat triangular missing portions with metal. Now of the six peripheral coins, we remove three of them by removing every other one. This gives a three-lobed metallic structure (with three "holes" where coins were located) that we could call a three-lobed non-Orffyrean sprocket wheel. [Notice that the circular lobes of the three-lobed non-Orffyrean sprocket wheel are separated by 120 degrees with respect to the center of the center coin. Notice that the circular holes of the three-lobed non-Orffyrean sprocket wheel are also separated by 120 degrees with respect to the center of the center coin. This is consistent with the about 120 degree angles between the centers of the light sectors and about 120 degree angles between the centers of the dark sectors (for angles with respect to the center of the circle on p. 189 of Collins' book).] Imagine we take another three-lobed non-Orffyrean sprocket wheel and insert one of its circular lobes into a hole in the first three-lobed non-Orffyrean sprocket wheel. It would be nice to have the inserted circle act as a nearly frictionless bearing but this is not the case. There is too much surface contact. To rotate the new three-lobed non-Orffyrean sprocket wheel would require much rubbing of the surfaces with respect to each other. Much energy would be lost to friction and there would be much wearing out of such sprocket wheels.


Now we should take a tip from the little children in Bessler's "little book," who play among the broken columns with heavy clubs by means of pivoting by rolling-static contact with the ground. We can model this situation by adding some more metal to each radius R hole in the three-lobe non-Orffyrean sprocket wheel to create out of each hole a new larger-radius hole. In the diagram on page 189 of Collins' book, Bessler increased each radius to about 40R/35 = FR where the radius increase factor, F, was about 40/35. When we increase the hole radius, we should make sure that the new larger radius holes are still tangent with the original circular lobes which each still has a radius of R. This creates the L=3 or three-lobed Orffyrean sprocket wheel as illustrated in the bottom right portion of the front figure. A different number of lobes than three may be used for other types of Orffyrean sprocket wheels. The basic idea for constructing an L-lobed Orffyrean sprocket wheel may conceptually be as follows: (1) draw or create a circle such that an even number (=2L) of radius R non-overlapping circles or "coins" are all tangent to an interior circle of radius R((1/(sin(90/L)))-1) and tangent to their nearest two peripheral neighbors of radius R, (2) fill in the 2L somewhat triangular interior gaps, (3) remove every other peripheral circle (of radius R) creating L holes, and (4) add enough material to each hole so that the hole size increases from a radius of R to a radius of FR while each new hole is still tangent to the radius R circular lobes on either side. Alternatively, the depth of the new FR radius holes may be pragmatically offset. I (at the time of the final review of my paper) considered the L=3 or three-lobed Orffyrean sprocket wheel to be the standard because such would be most suggested by the three sector figure at the end of Apologia. Then, I considered the translated phrase from Bessler's little book "Saturn, Mars and Jupiter are ready to join in any battle." That phrase should apply to the Orffyrean sprocket wheel. I drew an L=6 or six=lobed Orffyrean sprocket wheel (as you can see the initial construction for in my front figure). Doing such better accounted for that planetary phrase. Doing such allowed a more reasonable interpretation of Bessler's acrobats and feather-fencers (or shadow boxers). Doing such made much more sense with respect to the idea of six pointed snowflakes and it better suited the Orffyrean idea of energy or stress being sent across circles. I now consider the L=6 or six-lobed Orffyrean sprocket wheel the standard and should be used as much as is practical.

Orffyrean Roller. An Orffyrean roller of type L lobes may be constructed by well connecting a large number of L-lobed Orffyrean sprocket wheels about a common axis, typically each out of angular phase by just a little so that as one begins to finish bearing the load, a neighbor begins to bear the load (so that they smoothly share the bearing of the load). Mosiah 18:8 says "... to bear one another's burdens, that they may be light;" There need to be enough Orffyrean sprocket wheels so that there may be smooth load bearing transitions. I think that the cycle should be at least repeated so that the burden is also shared by more than one well separated region along the roller axis to reduce or avoid axis wobble. A series of three would be better than a series of two as it should increase the stability while allowing some redundancy so as to avoid the propagation and accumulation of small wobble errors. The Orffyrean roller designer would need to consider such things. Though the phase angle order would depend upon the roller designer, I might suggest serial angles repeated in numerical order as that would tend to lessen the load transition distances, it would be more easily subject to flaw inspection, and it might allow any created dust particles from wear to be blown out without stopping of operation.


Orffyrean Roller Bearing. A standard Orffyrean or digital or "geared" roller bearing may be created by using one larger Orffyrean roller of type L = a large number of lobes for the center axle, with six correspondingly associated standard Orffyrean rollers each of type L=6 lobes outside of it and the appropriate Orffyrean sleeve outside of them all. Predicated on determining the existence of exact workable solutions for some particular radius increase factor, F, one could search for the allowed sets (I, J, K) corresponding to that F, where I is the number of radius R circular lobes on each innermost Orffyrean sprocket wheel of the innermost Orffyrean roller of type I lobes, where J is the number of radius R circular lobes on each one of the middle joining Orffyrean sprocket wheels (surrounding the innermost Orffyrean roller of type I lobes) that constitute the joining Orffyrean rollers of type J lobes, and where K is the number of radius R circular lobes on the interior of each of the outer Orffyrean sleeve wheels containing all the interior rollers. Though I am not currently sure of the sleeve technology, an outer Orffyrean sleeve wheel with K circular lobes of radius R (for a radius increase factor, F) might be constructed as follows: (1) find the circle that allows 2K circles of radius R to be contained within it so that each is tangent to the circle and each circle is tangent to its two adjacent radius R neighbors, (2) fill in the 2K somewhat triangular gaps between the radius R circles and the containing circle, (3) remove every other radius R circle to form K holes, and (4) partly fill in the holes to create new holes with radius FR so that each created circular hole is tangent to its two adjacent radius R circular lobe neighbors. I don't know if I have correctly guessed the correct lobe construction pattern for the Orffyrean sleeve wheel, as I have not gone through the mathematics myself. Another sleeve possibility might be to use inward pointing lobes that locally consist of adjacent two-lobe portions of a single valid type of Orffyrean sprocket wheel. I would guess that there is a simple sleeve construction solution when looked at just right. Maybe some brave soul or souls (possibly armed with powerful simulation software) can discover a workably-simple solution for the sleeve lobe geometry. If Bessler could do it, we should be able to find a working solution. I suppose that Bessler knew some simulation shortcuts that I am currently unaware of. Maybe I should have specified, as a parameter to a solution, the number of connecting rollers of type J.

Procedurally, one might start with a radius increase factor, F, of interest (such as about 40/35), look for an approximate (I, J, K) solution of interest, and then find the exact F so that the (I, J, K) solution is attained exactly. As this paper is more than long enough already, I will just let others discover those portions of the Orffyrean mathematics that they are interested in. I imagine that since Bessler took on the name of Orffyreus, he must have at least found enough solutions to deal with practical cases that he was interested in. As seen on p. 29 of Collins' book, Bessler did many calculations. I would conjecture that there exists a solution for F corresponding to the analytically simple (I, J, K) planar case of I=K being infinite (likely using J=6 that is using the standard six-lobed Orffyrean sprocket wheels within the middle connecting rollers). While such should have practical applications in other projects (for say large load bearing planes in a clean unlubricated environment going back and forth with very little friction over a wide range of speeds and accelerations), of more immediate concern is the construction or creation of Orffyrean or digital or geared roller bearings for use in the Bessler pendulum. Since Bessler seemed to subtly advertise the fact in his diagram, I imagine that Bessler found a solution applicable to his Orffyrean roller bearing for the radius increase factor, F, in the vicinity of 40/35. In other words, I would guess that for an appropriate I and K there should be an (I, J, K) solution of (I, 6, K), for F in the vicinity of 40/35.


Most likely there were J=6 lobes in each of the Orffyrean sprocket wheels used in the six (I assume) rollers surrounding the I lobe axle in the Orffyrean roller bearing. Not only would this be consistent with the idea of six pointed snowflakes, this would have been consistent with the idea of stress going across a circle (or Orffyrean sprocket wheel) as was the case of the letters in Bessler going across the alphabet circle to Orffyre according to the albam code or the other way (see pp. 181, 185, 187, 190 of Collins' book). I suppose that Bessler was quite familiar or experienced with his Orffyrean roller bearing by the time he took upon himself the name Orffyreus. My supposition is in part based upon the time that Bessler took on the name Orffyreus as seen on pp. 23 and 30 of Collins' book.

As an approximate analogy, the bearing process is somewhat like walking with very short steps. If the steps are short enough, there is very little bobbing of the body up and down while walking. Bessler makes the steps very short and the transitions smooth between steps. That analogy is probably more appropriate for the planar (or I = K being infinite) case. We could make the analogy slightly better for the non-planar cases if we were to examine the motion of walking around outside a circle while taking many tiny steps.

As a better analogy for the non-planar cases though still not exact (since it ignores half the stress bearing modes), we could look at a stationary central Orffyrean roller and notice the path of the centers of small circles of radius R that are allowed to roll without slipping within the holes of radius FR (of Orffyrean sprocket wheels in the central Orffyrean roller axle) where F is a little greater than one. Enough Orffyrean sprocket wheels at fine enough angular offsets could be used so that the projection (in the central roller axle direction) of the paths of the radius R small-circle centers when closest to the center of the central roller axle begins to approximate a smooth circle. The small circles of radius R (though in actual usage are attached to other Orffyrean entities) could almost be thought of as a new type of low-friction cylindrical bearings operating without lubrication. Though I have had difficulty expressing more exact analogies, the reader might try to come up with their own more exact analogies where the load is borne by both (1) the radius R circles rolling in the holes of the central Orffyrean sprocket wheels of the central axle and (2) the radius R lobes of the central Orffyrean sprocket wheels of the central axle being rolled upon by the holes of Orffyrean sprocket wheels within outer Orffyrean rollers.

Lubrication curiously enough could cause the static bearing points to slip and the gearing to get out of proper angular step. This lubrication should be avoided which by conventional wisdom sounds very unusual indeed (except for the sprocket wheel and chain experiments reported in April 2000 Popular Science that curiously showed that lubrication was not a major factor in efficiency) for large sprocket wheels and tight chains. Still the Orffyrean roller bearing had to operate it in a clean environment so that problems not arise. Liquid lubricants should also be avoided as they could slow down the operation of the Orffyrean roller bearing by their surface tensions.


If a sprocket lobe just comes and gently touches a piece of metal and there is just some slight pivoting as it does a slight roll, this should be a very efficient process in weight bearing and should result in very high efficiency bearings (assuming phase-correcting rubbing on the sprocket lobe sides is handled by generally being avoided). Rubbing may also be diminished in a steady state with all the outer rollers in the Orffyrean roller bearing all rolling at identically the same rate so that the situation is balanced like a snowflake is balanced by its rotations. Static friction without slipping does not generally cause much energy loss for quality materials that do not separate (or destroy the other material) upon rolling. Energy is lost when there is friction along with slipping. If everything is in proper order, the adjacent sprocket lobes surrounding the holes should keep the joining Orffyrean sprocket wheel in step by only on rare occasion some slight rubbing.

I would guess that generally less slack is better when building an Orffyrean roller bearing. More slack could cause extra rubbing or being out of proper position. Still there would need to be enough slack to allow its construction and to not run into trouble with the thermal expansion coefficients. These issues need to be carefully studied to find their proper scientific/engineering tradeoffs. The tradeoffs might be satisfied by attaching the Orffyrean sprocket wheels with a slightly springy material (say springy rods connecting the Orffyrean sprocket wheels in each roller).

The stability of the (I, J, K) with F solutions need to be studied. If instabilities (associated with slack or thermal expansions or wearing or accidental slipping of surfaces or sudden stopping of the bearings) are found, then slightly different curvature variations may need to be studied to address any such instabilities. If the tolerances must be very tight to avoid instabilities, then this could interfere with Orffyrean roller bearing assembly. Procedures need to be worked out for the safe assembly of the Orffyrean roller bearings.

Recapitulate. Maybe I should describe or recapitulate some of the major findings that come out of the interpretation (and analysis) of Bessler's "little book" parable with the aid of my own family experimentations, my own physical analysis of the apparent situation, my own personal thoughts/suppositions, and the circular drawing that Bessler provided for some reason at the end of his Apologia (see Collins p. 189). The covering mantle wheel apparently rotates about the same horizontal axis as the Bessler pendulum within. There are three nearly solid sprocket wheels whose centers form a line of the main Bessler pendulum. The rotational axes of the three wheels are all parallel to the horizontal rotational axis of the main Bessler pendulum line. The largest wheel is centered at the rotational axis of the main pendulum line. The other two wheels are on opposite ends of the main pendulum line. Based on Bessler's planetary comments, I suspect that the distances from the centers of the other two wheels to the center of the large wheel are nearly identical but I do not know this for sure and so this is a matter that should be investigated by experimentation. The horizontal rotational axis of the main Bessler pendulum line corresponded to the horizontal rotational axis of the large center wheel. The diameter of the smallest sprocket wheel should for better performance be quite large compared to ordinary sprocket wheels.


The center large wheel and the "small" wheel have a chain going around their outer edges. The chain is tight but not so tight, as to cause the Orffyrean roller bearing to fatigue or the framework to bend or the chain links to fatigue. The tightness of the chain needs to be set to provide the greatest efficiency to the working system. The chain likely interlaces the sprocket teeth as we normally see with the safety bicycle of the 20th century. For a reasonable size Bessler pendulum, I recommend that a normal though longer bicycle chain be used as that is quite common and easily available. I do not think that Bessler had access to our modern bicycle-like chains but he surely had access to the ordinary simple alternately linking loop chains. The sprocket teeth could have gone through every other chain link. I can imagine that there might have been other drive chains available at that time that could be so operated without much friction. For example, larger links surrounding the sprocket teeth could have had holes on each end to hold interconnecting simpler little links for the purpose that a single sprocket tooth only coming into contact with the solid metal from a single chain link. The tight chains about the large diameter sprocket wheels could have borne the tension upon slightly bending by slight pivots or rolling of metal over metal in an energy efficient manner.

There are two supports about the main pendulum line, each support connecting an end of the three wheel axes and each support pivoting at an Orffyrean roller bearing. The supports as well as the wheels, chains and bearings should be built of the same high strength metal (with the exception of some appropriate thin surface materials) to avoid thermal expansion problems.

Though I think that the intermediate size torque governor wheel is a sprocket type of wheel, the shape and distance between its sprocket teeth need not be the same as the sprocket teeth of the other two wheels because it does not have a chain going about it. For manufacturing simplicity, there may be an advantage to keeping the sprocket teeth the same size. Also allowing the torque governor wheel to have normally spaced sprocket teeth would allow for the possibility of it previously or later being used in another size Bessler pendulum as a small or large wheel.

Just a little after the main pendulum (on the "small" wheel side) reaches its local angular extremum, the torque governor wheel is rapidly stopped by quickly inserting a structurally supported bar in between sprocket teeth of the torque-governor wheel. The structural support is to allow multiple torque governor teeth to be engaged suddenly and to prevent the bar from being permanently deformed by engaging and stopping the torque governor wheel. This should also help prevent torque governor sprocket teeth from chipping. When stopping the torque-governor wheel, the bar might be roughly parallel to the wheel axes but is constrained by the two supports of the main pendulum (with the use of roller bearings) so that it can adequately keep the torque-governor wheel from turning until it is quickly withdrawn. I suspect that the bar lies between the torque-governor wheel and the large wheel so as to not increase the torque of the already large torque-governor side of the pendulum. Putting the bar beyond the torque governor wheel would increase the main-line-pendulum-torque of the torque-governor side of the pendulum requiring extra counterbalancing mass to be added on the side of the "small" size wheel.


I think that there is an Orffyrean roller bearing pivot point on the flail bar on the pivoting "swingle" end. The pivot is supported by the linear structure that supports the axles of the three main wheels on one side. I don't know if variants of the Orffyrean roller bearings are needed to reduce friction between the flail bar and the main linear structures (and to better transfer the side impulse when the torque governor wheel is stopped without damaging the Orffyrean roller bearing used as a pivot). When the bar is quickly withdrawn, the torque governor wheel is able to turn somewhat in the fashion as the reel of a fishing pole is spun when a cast is made (but in the pendulum there is no fishing line present). When the torque governor wheel is suddenly allowed to spin freely, it is done under a prior condition of large nonuniform circular acceleration of the torque governor wheel. The bar must be quickly pulled away from the torque governor wheel (near its highest elevation) by more than just gravity. At its release, the torque governor wheel does not lose its internal rotational kinetic energy that it held as part of the rotational coordinate system just prior to its release. Thus the torque governor wheel still spins after release and needs to be able to overcome any slight friction (in the Orffyrean roller bearing) during the rapid deceleration of the entire pendulum.

In the static situation with the pendulum not working, the intermediate torque governor wheel is on top and the small wheel is on the bottom. This can be guaranteed by placing weights far from the center of the large wheel on the small wheel side but attached to the main-line-pendulum normally rotating pair of supports. This would be a matter of experimentation. Bessler spoke of the "wheel" working even though laden and this situation addresses in part why we would practically want the pendulum to be laden. The term "laden" also refers to the interiors of the large and small wheels containing much nearly solid-uniform mass unlike our modern sprocket wheels.

Back to the dynamic situation, the bar is suddenly released from constraining the torque governor wheel when the little wheel is approximately at its lowest height (and thus the torque governor wheel is approximately at its highest point). The exact release point should depend upon experimentation. This release allows the torque governor wheel to rotate slowly according to the internal angular velocity or momentum that it held prior to the bar being removed. (I doubt that it can here acquire any extra internal angular velocity by nucleon-graviton angular momentum symmetry somehow being broken at the quantum level of the spin two graviton, possibly in the fashion of a falling rapidly-rotating snowflake, but experiments can be done to check out that idea.) With the rapid angular velocity decrease of the mainline pendulum, the effective transition to this slow relative rotation might be rapid enough so as not to deal much with any slight energy-losing static coefficient of friction. Such energy loss should be minimal by the special rolling nature of the Orffyrean roller bearing.

The torque governor wheel reverses its rotational direction (meaning its internal angular velocity) with each pendulum half cycle so that the internal angular velocity (or proportionally the internal angular momentum) of the torque governor wheel (prior to being stopped) will point in the same direction as the angular velocity (or proportionally the angular momentum) of the main Bessler pendulum line (prior to the main pendulum line coming to its maximum angular extent). The angular velocity vector is parallel to the axis of rotation and points in the direction that a right hand screw would move if so rotated. The magnitude of the angular velocity vector is the instantaneous change in angle per time change or in other words it is the angular speed. The instantaneous internal angular momentum vector points in the same direction as the instantaneous internal angular velocity vector.


Apparently according to Bessler's "little book" parable, each time that the torque governor wheel is stopped, the lower portion of the chain will twang (like the bow string going taunt). Maybe the actual sound is very faint if it is audible. The small wheel will then either quickly increase or decrease its internal angular velocity, and the main pendulum then will in slightly delayed response proceed to increase its main angular amplitude. Energy and angular momentum are sent forth gently from the slowly rotating nuclear ground states in the torque governor wheel (or mice in Bessler's parable) as there is nuclear cooling of those rotating nuclear ground states. There should be no harmful X-ray or gamma radiation given off by Bessler's pendulum (though initial tests for such should be done on working pendula just to make sure that this is the case). Dental film could be attached to the anvil and the torque governor wheel to check for the presence of some X rays. It might be interesting to view the situation with infrared cameras since the slowing down of rotating nuclear ground states might interact somewhat with thermal blackbody photons and so increase their energy (see my cold fusion paper).

Because there is some reason (according to Bessler's "little book") to keep the driver driving and the runner running, there may need to be an asymmetry in the energy extraction so that enough energy is put into the "forward" rotation of the large wheel so as to keep it going in just one direction with respect to angular velocity. That is, on alternate half cycles of the pendulum, energy may need to be dumped into or removed from the large sprocket wheel. If there were an exact symmetry or equality in these energies, then the situation because of friction would degenerate to stopping of the motion of the large wheel or rather the fluxuations of the angular velocities of the large sprocket wheel about zero. The symmetry or equality must be broken to insure that the large wheel only rotates in one direction with nonzero angular velocity which might also avoid any small energy absorbing static coefficients of friction in the connected large and small sprocket wheels. How to invoke the asymmetry may need to depend upon experimentation. Maybe even in the low friction Orffyrean roller bearing the friction near low angular speeds is slightly larger than the friction at higher angular speeds. This could help explain why it is important to keep the driver driving and its connected runner running. There may be other more important reasons (that I can only guess about) with respect to why we need to keep the driver driving and the runner running.


I tried not to force an interpretation of the parable but I may have improperly done so in many places. Here is a highly speculative example of how I might have forced an interpretation. I could have imposed a fancier interpretation of the parable say along the lines of gravitons being redirected by their interaction with matter (but such interpretations seemed out of character with the essence of the parable and did not seem to be as consistent with the totality of information-match during the parable interpretation). Still such ideas might help explain some modern day gravitational results when certain superconductors are spun. I have heard of spinning a YBa2Cu3O7-x superconductor about an axis parallel to the vertical direction (see IE #9, 22 which refer to E. Podkletnov at Tampere University in Finland). It would be interesting to observe the effect of spinning such superconductors about a horizontal direction. Maybe this could provide a speculative clue as to how a miniature powerful version of the invention could be produced (that John Collins speculates about on p. 213 of his book). Such a turn of events may depend upon progress in the search for room temperature superconductivity and I think it could lead to a completely different device.

I think that the letter coding from "Bessler" to "Orffyre" using a circle (p. 181 of Collins' book) with the 26 letters of the alphabet around the edge of the circle and one translating by going directly across through the middle of the circle might represent the energy going directly across the circle from the dual pointed heavy weight to the torque governor wheel. It might also represent the energy suddenly being sent from the torque governor wheel (when it is suddenly stopped) to the other side of the main pendulum line. Collins on p. 23 indicates that Bessler adopted the pseudonym Orffyreus prior to his discovery of the secret of "perpetual motion". On p. 29, Collins indicates that Orffyreus made numerous prior models and had flashes of inspiration prior to his "strangely invigorating dream." Orffyreus might have understood major portions of how the machine should work (possibly including the idea that energy somehow needed to be sent across a circle through its center) prior to his dream which dream preceded by some weeks his invention being synthesized. See Collins' p. 29 and p. 30. The other half of the rationale of why Bessler took on the name Orffyreus is because of the Orffyrean technology as I discussed above.

I think that the Bessler pendulum should typically be enclosed. For reasons of safety, I think that Bessler's pendulum should be generally enclosed so that no one is hit by say the heavy dual pointed weight (pointed for aerodynamic reasons). For reasons of material purity and sustained efficiency, I think that the Bessler pendulum should be generally enclosed. Dust, wind, rain, and other environmental factors could greatly decrease or destroy its efficiency.

Real or Thought Experiments


I was telling my neighbor a little about the Bessler pendulum on 12 August 2000. He likes to be called "Mike the Bike" maybe since he has fixed up many bicycles for children in the neighborhood (including one for my son, Christopher). Unlike many people who have seemed somewhat skeptical when I started to tell them about the Bessler pendulum, Mike the Bike didn't seem to be skeptical at all. He said that he has been using a stable pendulum that is adjustable so that it can mark off seconds with a full cycle lasting two seconds. He says that the pendulum has been operating for 10 years. It has been operating for all that time without any batteries or any obvious source of power. He estimated that its total weight (including its casing) is 12 ounces and the rotating arm weighs less than one ounce. The arm pivots on a gold pin which is inside a silver sleeve. He said that gold and silver are "married" as they don't wear each other out. He said there are three ball bearings that can roll within the bottom weight portion (though there would be room for four bearings). There is no lubricant used anywhere in the pendulum that he uses. The interested experimenter who is more interested in "perpetual motion" than producing energy might try some experiments along the lines of that pendulum clock. Some of the experiments and thought experiments that I describe would have some application to the situation of that pendulum clock.

I was having much difficulty interpreting what Bessler meant with ""the qualities of the elements are necessary to keep things going." See Collins' book on page 225. When Mike the Bike told me the above, then the pieces seemed to "fall into place" about what Bessler meant by that expression that I had not been able to figure out. Another possibility might have been diamonds (as in old style watches with so many jewel movements) but I think that not very likely for situations where larger weights must be borne.

I would guess that the pendulum Mike the Bike has used could be made more efficient from an energy acquisition standpoint if the ball bearings were in the top (like the torque governor wheel in Bessler's pendulum) instead of in the bottom. As its goal was not to produce energy but to just collect enough energy to keep going with a steady beat, maybe some energy collection inefficiency is therefore desirable. A large angular amplitude swing might not be desirable from a timing stability standpoint.

(E4) Constrained Torque Governor Wheel. With the large and small sprocket wheels either held rigid with respect to the main pendulum or removed with an additional weight added to the anvil weight located near and slightly below where the small wheel was, (1) insert a restraining bar with sensors into the teeth of the torque governor wheel so as to not let it rotate with respect to the main pendulum, (2) release the pendulum from an initial stationary position at the anvil's maximum angular amplitude, (3) observe how the torque governor wheel acquires internal rotational kinetic energy as the torque governor wheel goes up, (4) "feel" through the restraining bar sensors how the torque governor wheel presses on just one side of the restraining bar as the torque governor wheel goes up (and the anvil weight goes down), (5) observe how the torque governor wheel loses internal rotational kinetic energy as the torque governor wheel goes down, (6) "feel" through the restraining bar sensors how the torque governor wheel presses on just the other side of the restraining bar as the torque governor wheel goes down (and the anvil weight goes up), and (7) observe that the maximum angular amplitude of the anvil when it comes to a final momentary rest on the opposite side is almost as large (magnitude wise) as that angle it initially started at. The angle's magnitude is smaller due to frictional losses. The initial and final internal rotational kinetic energies of the torque governor wheel were both zero with respect to the ground (where we are ignoring the motion of the earth in this experiment). Somehow in this experiment or thought experiment internal rotational kinetic energy was sent to the torque governor wheel and then this energy was removed from the torque governor wheel. The energy is added by constraining forces and then remove by constraining forces.

(E5) Released Torque Governor Wheel. This is nearly the same experiment as actual or thought experiment E4 except that when the torque governor wheel gets to the top, the restraining bar is allowed or caused to drop out from between the sprocket teeth so that the bar no longer constrains the torque governor wheel on the second half of its half cycle journey. Assuming that there is little friction, the torque governor wheel is allowed to retain its acquired internal rotational kinetic energy. I speculate that the final angular amplitude of the pendulum is almost that same final angle as in experiment E4 (ignoring the mass of the restraining bar).


Comparing experiments E4 and E5, there is similar mainline pendulum motion but in experiment E5 there might be extra internal rotational kinetic energy that is not removed. These and similar thought experiments may and should be actually done by interested people. Any extra energy in experiment E5 might be the extra energy used to increase the energy in a well designed Bessler pendulum (unless the extra energy had been acquired earlier from the anvil as Bessler suggests). One can argue about where any extra energy might come from. One should do many experiments to determine exactly where the extra energy is coming from in a working Bessler pendulum. One of the reviewers (Bullock) of my initial paper referred to energy as having to come from somewhere. See Mormon Doctrine by Bruce McConkie under the topic "Creation" on p. 169 which references "The elements are eternal, ..." (D&C 93:33) and quotes many other words of Joseph Smith. Dr. Bullock (who was previously one of my Bishops) quoted much of this creation discussion and then Einstein's famous couplet - E=mc2 to conclude "... Any machine which dissipates energy must have a source of energy if it is to continue in motion - whether that is a dissipation of some of its internal or potential energy or a reduction of its mass." His point should be carefully considered. I speculate that the extra energy comes from the energy rich raging river of gravitons coming out from the earth so that as with creation the energy doesn't come out of nothing. Please forgive the double negative. Where the vast amount of electromagnetic energy comes from that is sent out at the speed of light from a bare charge (or where the large amount of gravitational energy comes from, that is apparently sent out at the speed of light from a neutral mass) is not directly considered in this paper but there may be some clues or hints in the explanation for Fig. 5 for Facsimile No. 2 of the Book of Abraham. [Given a knowledge of the Bessler pendulum, one might also look at the interesting relative positions of Figs. 3, 1, and 6 within Facsimile No. 2 and also observe Fig. 7.]

I suspect that Bessler understood that some energy could be extracted from gravity prior to his invigorating dream since as I infer from Collins' book p. 23 and pp. 29-30 that he went by the name Orffyreus (suggesting energy going across a circle) prior to the time of his receiving his invigorating dream. I suspect he struggled with how to capture and accumulate the excess internal rotational kinetic energy which may have been difficult with the absence of the large and small wheel with the chain going around them (or the proximity of the always say clockwise internally rotating small wheel to the dual pointed anvil may have been a requirement for breaking the quantum symmetry within the anvil or rather allowing the spin two gravitons to preferentially accumulate their angular momenta when interacting with the nuclei in the anvil). A shock impulse of stopping the torque governor wheel at the pendulum angular extrema might not have been conducive to increasing the angular amplitude of the pendulum (without a way to transition the energy). Whether or not I am correct about this supposition, investigators may still want to try out such experiments as these to see what happens (that is try the Bessler pendulum experiments without the large and small wheels).


E5 Discussion. First are some definitions and then follow some simple calculations. Let t be the radius of the torque governor wheel. Let T be the distance of the center of the torque governor wheel from the center of the large wheel. Let M be the mass of the torque governor wheel. Let L now be the radius of the large wheel. Let s be the radius of the small wheel. Let S be the distance of the center of the small wheel from the center of the large wheel. Let V be the distance of the anvil's "center" from the center of the large wheel. With the torque governor wheel being approximately of cylindrical shape, the moment of inertia of the torque governor wheel about its symmetry axis is I = .5Mtt.

The Parallel axis theorem or (5.81) on p. 225 of Mechanics 3rd edition (1971) Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. by Keith R. Symon is stated, "The moment of inertia of a body about any given axis is the moment of inertia about a parallel axis through the center of mass, plus the moment of inertia about the given axis if all the mass of the body were located at the center of mass."

On p. 220 of Mechanics by Symon, there is a theorem stating, "If a body is symmetrical with respect to a plane, its center of mass lies in that plane." A corollary of this is also stated on p. 220 as, "If a body is symmetrical about an axis, its center of mass lies on that axis." From these we see that the center of mass of a solid cylinder is at its very center.


This will not be a full dynamic calculation nor is it exact. Its purpose is only to provide an approximate plausibility calculation to see if there is some mathematical support for my interpretation of Bessler's "little book." I will leave more detailed calculations to others. These calculations ignore the small wheel, large wheel, and chain about them (which is Bessler's new wheel-pendulum entity). We can ignore them by locking them in place somehow or remove them and add some extra mass to the anvil (so as not to greatly disturb the balancing of the pendulum). We estimate the change in the moment of inertia of the torque governor wheel (with respect to the Bessler pendulum pivot axis) as it undergoes its change of state upon being released at approximately its maximum height. Before its release the moment of inertia of the torque governor wheel about the pendulum pivot (which pivot is also where the center of the large wheel was) was by the parallel axis theorem .5Mtt + MTT. After being released its moment of inertia is approximately that of a point mass of just MTT. Except for the degrading effects of friction, it retains all its internal rotational kinetic energy .5Iww = .5(.5Mtt)ww. The angular frequency, w, was maximum at this point where w is the angular frequency of the pendulum near the time of the release of the torque governor wheel. The solution for the pendulum motion after the release of the torque governor wheel in E5 is approximately the same with .5Mtt + MTT being approximately MTT and that being small corresponding to the moment of inertial of the augmented weighted anvil (so we are ignoring the other wheels and pendulum supporting frame). The approximation is reasonable if (.5(t/T)(t/T) + 1)MTT is approximately MTT or if we were to have .5(t/T)(t/T) << 1 which condition is independent of M. Possibly ignoring for now any captured internal rotational kinetic energies of nuclei in the torque governor wheel, the internal rotational kinetic energy captured during the change of state is (M/4)(tt)(ww) which depends on M and the square of w (which itself is at its maximum at that time) but that internal rotational kinetic energy has no dependence on T. It is therefore advantageous to increase T relative to t so that we have .5(t/T)(t/T) << 1 but we need to use t large enough so that (M/4)(tw)(tw) is still large. This is a reason why the selection of t would make it a middle size wheel (not too small and not too large). There is something very interesting going on in Bessler's pendulum. Though Bessler was quite studious, he couldn't make mass instantaneously appear or disappear but by means of a constraint bar he was able to make moment of inertia suddenly appear or disappear during the change of state of the torque governor wheel and allow some energy to be captured, saved, and later released to other portions of his pendulum.

As starting values for particular further analysis, we could try 2t = 3s, 2L = 4s, 6s = T, 6s = S, and S + s < V. These are the values I tried to use in drawing my front figure. In particular this means that the desired approximation .5(t/T)(t/T) << 1 would be .5(3/12)(3/12) << 1 or (1/32) << 1. If that is not sufficiently small to satisfy the Bessler pendulum reverse engineer, then a smaller value may be obtained by selecting T larger relative to t. Since the factor (t/T) is squared, T only needs to be somewhat larger relative to t to considerably change the expression, .5(t/T)(t/T) . If T were to increase, I would tend to increase S also since T = S is suggested in Bessler's "little book" in the lower part of chiastic levels C, D, and E.

The calculations are in the tradition of the "back of an envelope" type of calculation. I just wanted to show some of the essence of what is going on. I wanted to make sure that some simple observations are not lost in a flood of mathematical equations. I am sure that there are others who are willing to write down many mathematical equations regarding the Bessler pendulum so that it might be studied in much greater detail. A more complete calculation may need to properly consider the internal rotational kinetic energies of the nuclei (especially related to the graviton interactions with them). I don't know if the choice of predominant element (with "proper" nuclear structure) for the wheels and anvil is related to Bessler's "the qualities of the elements are necessary to keep things going" (see Collins page 225). Experimentation may be necessary to resolve this issue.

More experiments and discussions could deal with Bessler's new wheel-pendulum entity in absorbing the released energy into the pendulum.


(E6) Wheel-pendulum Efficiency. Build a large new entity wheel-pendulum and measure its efficiency. In the April 2000 "Popular Science" in the inside bottom corner of page 22, there was a short article called "Pedal Power" about experiments done at John Hopkins (by a team lead by James B. Spicer). Using their infrared camera on the bicycle chain they found efficiencies as high as 98.6 percent. The researchers found that large sprocket wheels and tight chains were the most important factors in efficiency. They were surprised to discover that lubrication doesn't play a major role in efficiency. To me, these finding match perfectly with Bessler's new entity (his wheel-pendulum with very large sprocket wheels, a clean tight chain, and no lubrication on the chain to "gum up" the works). For a large Bessler pendulum, the small sprocket wheel is smaller than the larger one but by bicycle standards it could be quite large. For such geometries, the bicycle chain would only need to occasionally bend slightly. It seems to me that with some wearing in a bicycle chain (if not designed that way) a very slight bending in a chain under sufficient tension could become a nearly frictionless slight rolling of metal over metal. I don't know if Bessler would have bothered to alternate gold and silver on any slightly rubbing portions of his chains or even on the greater rubbing portions of the chains and sprockets as doing such might not have been necessary there. Through design or default, interlocking older style chain links could have had very slight pivots by using metal rolling over metal in a near frictionless manner. He might have saved the gold and silver for more strategic portions of his bearings. I suppose we need to leave such things in the hands of the experimenters.

(E7) Orffyrean Roller Bearing Efficiency. As a continuation of the above ideas I suspect one could build an Orffyrean or geared roller bearing for bearing a torque governor wheel and test out its efficiency as a function of angular speed and as a function of torque governor wheel radius, thickness, density, etc. As long as the internal surfaces are clean, there would not be nor should there be any lubricants to gum up the works or slow down the bearing by much friction. As partial evidence that Bessler used clean surfaces without lubrication in his pendulum, notice on pp. 107, 200 of Collins' book that there was oil-cloth that covered Bessler's Kassel wheel. The oil-cloth certainly was for security but oiling it would have not contributed to security but would have served to keep dust away from the inside of his wheel. Enough dust and dirt could with buildup destroy the special metal interfaces and cause the bearings to jam. Liquid or powdered lubricants with enough usage could create buildups and would become like the dust that Bessler was apparently trying hard to avoid. As further slight evidence for this, many out-gassing liquid lubricants would have partially dried out in the eight weeks of continuous testing of the Kassel wheel (see pp. 97, 101 of Collins' book or more specifically see pp. 16, 93 in reference to 54 days of continuous testing). Liquid lubricants could cause surface tensions which would add friction to the system. One of the neighbor boys told my son in August 2000 that Christopher should not add lubrication to his skateboard if Christopher wants his skateboard to go fast. So even out on the streets, some people are aware of certain viscosity or frictional problems associated with liquid lubricants.

It might be advisable to complete the studies for experiment E7 prior to doing the experiments E4, E5, and E6. Alternatively, one can do theoretical simulations or actual experiments for E4, E5, and E6 assuming very high efficiency bearings.



Despite his visible flaws (at some times in his life), and imperfections, there is much evidence that Bessler tried to be a man of God. I believe that the "strangely invigorating dream" (p. 29 of Collins' book) that he received was from God. Bessler put his trust in God and God showed mercy to him. As evidence that the information which Bessler received came from God, consider the persecution that was later heaped upon Bessler without reason. The devil generally wants us to be bound down in ignorance (unless the knowledge can somehow be selectively filtered or altered to mislead us toward our own destruction or being controlled or the destruction of others or their being controlled). I do not think that the devil and his fallen angels wanted the truth to come forward about Bessler's "perpetual motion" machine. Often the truth is attacked so as to keep it from going forward. For example, Joseph Smith, Jun., was legally accused a large number of times but to my knowledge was never found to be guilty of anything. Bessler's credibility was attacked though he stood for a principle that was right. The attacks did not come from God. Cold fusion has suffered under many strong-sudden attacks and later on being ignored and this despite the mountains of data that have come forward in its favor.

Truth Persecution. When truth from God is revealed upon the earth, there is typically persecution in one form or another arising from the devil in as much as it is in his power (see Bessler's 2 Tim. 3:12). When Bessler sought to spread knowledge of his true invention in a manner monetarily beneficial to himself (so that he could start his new style 'The Fortress of God' school to teach all the useful crafts and sciences to people of all nationalities as we see from Collins' book pp. 44, 99, 191), persecution arose and despite the many evidences in its favor, the devil was so able to successfully stamp out information about it (that to a large part today it is not even known to most people and to those aware of it, it has been for the most part considered false or fraudulent). It has effectively been incorporated as an axiom of standard physical thought that there cannot be such "purely" gravity-driven net mechanical power producing devices. The "proof" of such is that many have tried and many have failed.


Joseph Smith, Jun. Since the young man Joseph Smith, Jun., told of his first vision (at age 14 in 1820) (wherein he saw and spoke with God the Father and His Son Jesus Christ), there was persecution against him. (See JS-H 1:17, 21-25, 60-61, 74-75.) The persecutions might have stopped if he were to deny his vision from God but he would not deny the truth. The persecution increased as he tried to do God's will. The Encyclopedia of Mormonism indicates (under the entry Book of Mormon: Joseph Smith and the Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 140) "Despite many interruptions and persistent persecutions (JS-H 1:57-60), Joseph Smith translated the lengthy record in about sixty working days." Joseph Smith, Jun., was listed as the "Author and Proprietor" of the 1830 edition of the Book of Mormon. "This language, however, comes from the federal copyright statutes and legal form in use in 1829 ..." See Encyclopedia of Mormonism (Vol. 1, p. 166, Book of Mormon Authorship). There were also many statements/testimonies in the 1830 book regarding its origin, including what is now 2 Ne. 33:10 and Moro. 10:27-30. The book certainly came by way of him and he certainly is the author of the translation (with the help of God). Joseph Smith, Jun., only lived for about 14 years after the publishing of the Book of Mormon until he was assassinated in 1844. Many who never met Joseph Smith wanted to kill him, though if he had a chance to talk with them, they would usually have a change of heart. Also in the Encyclopedia of Mormonism (under the entry Smith, Joseph: Legal Trials of Joseph Smith, Vol. 3, p. 1346), it states "Beginning soon after his ministry began and continuing throughout his life, Joseph Smith was subjected to approximately thirty criminal actions and at least that many civil suits related to debt collection or failed financial ventures." That section concluded on p. 1347 with the words "Although plagued by bad advice and misfortune in business matters, the Prophet was never found guilty of any misconduct." On one occasion he was tarred and feathered by a mob (p. 1336 of Encyclopedia of Mormonism) and left for dead. In 1839 he went to Washington, D.C. to ask the Federal Government (p. 1337 of Encyclopedia of Mormonism) to have the lands in Missouri restored to the Saints (after they were forced out of Missouri). President Martin Van Buren responded, "Gentlemen, your cause is just, but I can do nothing for you. . . . If I take up for you I shall lose the vote of Missouri." (See History of the Church, 4:80.) See also The Teachings of Gordon B. Hinckley (1997) under CHURCH HISTORY AND HERITAGE. In response to this treatment four years later he ran for President of the United States and so he was a candidate when he was assassinated at the age of 38 in 1844 by a mob at Carthage Jail where he was being held in protective custody. One of the many points in his political campaign was to allow the federal government to purchase the freedom of the slaves by the sale of public lands (which might have ended slavery in the U.S. by 1850). One could wonder if Joseph Smith, Jun., could have avoided the U.S. Civil War had he been elected president, but he was not even given a chance in this regard. The Saints of God as well as this Prophet (of the Lord) were figuratively if not literally rejected by their country. A large number of the Saints in the midst of their difficult exodus from the United States to the Rocky Mountains showed their loyalty to the United States of America by accepting (at a highly inconvenient time) the invitation (from a country which spoke freedom of religion but which continued to allow the Saints to be driven out of various states where they had tried to live according to the dictates of God) to man the military organization that is now referred to as the Mormon Battalion (see reference to army in D&C 136:8). What a debt of gratitude is owed to such early pioneers (spiritually and otherwise) because of their perseverance despite much opposition. If it had not been for Joseph Smith Junior and for other pioneering members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, I would not have had sufficient faith and spiritual preparedness to begin to unravel the mystery of Bessler's wheel. The three wheels within the Bessler pendulum give physical support or symbolic evidence with respect to the first of the Articles of Faith of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints as penned by Joseph Smith, Jun., namely "We believe in God, the Eternal Father, and in His Son, Jesus Christ, and in the Holy Ghost."


Why was Joseph Smith, Jun., persecuted since he initially told of his first vision? I think it was because he was declaring the truth and Satan did not want him to do so. The young unlearned farm boy Joseph Smith, Jun., knew what he was telling was the truth but he was puzzled that his telling his story caused persecution. Bessler sufferer persecution for trying to stand for the truth and protect his invention at the same time. That persecution of the truth did not come from God (but rather it came from another source). God is not the author of confusion (1 Cor. 14:33) nor does God persecute except to chasten, correct, and to help people with their eternal progression. God does test and purify. When I have spoken of "perpetual motion" machines, some of my friends have initially understandably laughed or spoken against such things being possible (according to the currently well entrenched dogma). As far as the Bessler pendulum goes, I think that it needs to be brought out in the open. I think it should be brought out in the open since people should not deny what they can see, feel, examine for themselves, and test out scientifically. As I publish this paper, I expect to be laughed at until someone does succeed in building and demonstrating a modern day Bessler pendulum at work (or at least a functioning version of Orffyreus' roller bearing). I would hope that such a time quickly comes. I suppose that some people have figuratively if not literally laughed at John Collins (see p. 61 of IE #23) but I commend him for his boldness, courage, faith, and thoroughness in standing up for that which is true. John Collins' book provides a solid case for the historical reality of the mechanical power extracting Bessler wheel. It is most unwise to laugh at or persecute anyone who has truth on their side (even if the idea is not popular). Before people laugh at me they should consider that I've basically explained or at least made an excellent start with respect to how to "decode" Bessler's "little book" (which as far as I am aware has just remained unexplained for about two decades short of three hundred years). The nature of my explanation even explains why Bessler calls it a "little book." It is little but one can see it begin to open up into an entire book if not many books. I had to apply the "brakes" at times to keep the interpretation of the "little book" from growing too large. People can laugh at such things as cold fusion, over-unity engines, Collins book, and my paper but the laughs should stop as more findings come forth. (See D&C 1:19.) As I think I have described almost all the major technical specifications for building a Bessler pendulum, I think that many such laughs should cease when the pendula begin to come forth (except for possibly an increase in the lovingly-light laughter at Bessler's imagined fascinating funny "fops" and welcome weak wonders within the pendula).

Invention Ownership. God is the truest owner of all inventions as all truth and knowledge comes from God. Satan {or then Lucifer whose alternative second plan was rejected, Abr. 3:27-28; Moses 4:1-4; D&C 76:25-28; D&C29:36-37} (and his following angels) rejected God's plan long ago and in principle so can pass on knowledge (primarily gained from prior association with God) but when such knowledge if any is partially passed on, it is very selectively done with the intent to deceive, confuse, intimidate and destroy (or control).

I would gladly sign up for patent protection rights except in my mind I know that I am not the original inventor and I will not pretend to be the inventor of the Bessler pendulum. I consider Bessler to be the true mortal inventor (at and since his time in mortality) because of my own analysis. (I am somewhat side stepping the issue that there might have been people on this earth who could have built such pendula prior to Bessler.) Bessler as the mortal inventor has gone the way of all the earth. I refuse to say to him (sometime in the future when we meet again) that I pretended to be the original inventor of the Bessler pendulum. As spirit children of our Heavenly Father, we surely knew each other before we came down here to earth and I imagine we were good friends. I would not want some invention to stand in the way of our future friendship. Anyway the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) requires working models of perpetual motion machines and I do not have a working model. In addition to that, there does not appear to be a category of invention rediscovery. There is certainly no special USPTO category of reinventing the Bessler wheel. I am not hiding this information while I personally work toward a working invention. I have not withheld my basic ideas from my friends and associates. If this speeds up the process of the invention coming again, then so be it. Christopher's 2000 science fair project, poster, and the Bakersfield exhibition of the untuned Bessler pendulum provided much information on the subject.


If I am not the inventor of the Bessler pendulum, then anyone else that uses my/Bessler's ideas would have even less claim to having invented it by themselves (except they might show a working model to the USPTO and then patent it, if they claim to be the inventor of it). Unless someone invented it prior to Bessler's time, it would seem that Bessler is the true mortal inventor. In principle, the technology could have been known prior to Bessler but if so that technology was lost. I doubt if someone could belatedly file for a patent on his behalf or on the behalf of his heirs (whomever they may be). Still there are sticky legal questions such as were the messages Bessler left behind clear enough to constitute publishing in hindsight or did the one year time limit (for patent filing after publication) expire centuries ago? This could be a legal battle that I would desire to stay out of. If someone can manage to get a patent on the Bessler pendulum, then so be it. I just do not want to pretend to be an inventor of something I did not invent.

Could some of the legal heirs of Bessler file for a belated patent on his behalf? Who are his heirs? I imagine that he could have many descendants today (there might even be millions especially if some left Germany early on). Since we are all descendants of Adam and Eve, I am surely related to Bessler but I do not know any particular relationship. I currently know of only one of my ancestral lines that apparently goes back to Germany (but I have many unexplored ancestral lines). According to my family tradition, my oldest great grandmother, Lydia Margaret Tarter, born on 31 July 1844 in Faubush, Pulaski, Kentucky, was a daughter of Chrisley Tarter, who was a son of Peter Tarter of Germany (but I have seen information from the Ancestral File that if correct would mean that my Peter Tarter was not actually born in Germany). Maybe Chrisley Tarter was one of 13 children of Peter Tarter, who was a son of Balzer Tarter born on 13 March 1750 in Philadelphia, who was a son of Johannes Johan Anthon Dotter born during 1720 in Laubach, Germany. I found two such places on a map of Germany. One of which is in Hessen to the south by southwest direction from Kassel almost two thirds the way to Frankfurt. See p. 22 of Collins' book. Much more research is needed to find more of my family. The Bessler pendulum may be an energy gold mine but it is not clear to me that I am entitled to any rights to such a patent (as an inventor or an heir). I figure that my publishing this paper is more important than my trying to acquire elusive patent rights.


Internal Rotational States. Is there a relationship between the Bessler pendulum and the notion of rotating nuclear ground states? Aside from the common ideas of internal angular velocities and changes of states, the idea of internally rotating nuclear-ground-states has potential for being used in the explanation of why the Bessler pendulum works. The answer to the following thought experimental question might be of some importance regarding a potentially simple explanation of why the Bessler pendulum works. Given a large body uniformly rotating and at thermal equilibrium, is there a tendency for the average internal angular velocities of rotating nuclear-ground-states to tend to match on the average the angular velocity of the large body that they are embedded in? I suspect that this will be the case for a large enough body at equilibrium conditions. Now if the angular velocity of the large body changes in magnitude with time as is the case with various portions of the Bessler pendulum, the dynamic interaction of the average internal-angular-velocities of the nuclear-ground-states and the body's angular velocities will be especially of interest. They should come to a "thermal" angular velocity equilibrium. If a graviton were to preferentially impart a rotation to a nucleon, the nucleon and the body in which it is contained might reasonably need to come to a "thermal" angular velocity equilibrium. I am quite sure we do not need to resort to anything even mildly exotic such as alterations of the flow of gravitons by the interaction of matter, etc. other than absorption as normally occurs in matter. Still one would be wise to keep slightly more complex theory in mind on the off chance that the simplest theory is insufficient to explain the results. One might need to account for slight motions of the sturdy pendulum support posts as is often ignored in vibration calculations according to standard simplifications of the theory. I think that if we can more fully understand the formation of snowflakes, we stand a chance of more fully understanding why the Bessler pendulum works.

Scientific Theories/Progress. There are many areas where the correct and complete scientific theory needs to come forth. Here are a few examples of the many areas where improvement is needed. (1) A complete theory of how cold fusion works needs to come forth. Hopefully I will hear some substantiated answers to my cold fusion questions (regarding internally rotating nuclear-ground-states). (2) A more complete and accurate electromagnetic theory needs to come forth. The standard Maxwell's equations are just not adequate for example in view of the coming of the Marinov motor. See the paper "Demystifying the Marinov Motor" in IE #17 by Thomas E. Phipps, Jr., where Phipps notes that although Maxwell's equations are not invariant under inertial (Galilean) transformation of coordinates (which is why Einstein proposed universal covariance rather than universal invariance), Phipps shows how the Hertzian field equations are invariant under inertial (Galilean) transformation of coordinates and the Hertzian field equations account for the unusual behavior of the Marinov motor. (3) Relativity needs to be modified to account for improved understanding in electromagnetics. (4) See "Chasing the Wild Dragon: Foundations of a New Science" by Tom E. Bearden (found in "The Virtual Times" at for various areas that he thinks are in need of improvement. (5) The conditions for transferring spin to matter by the large spin graviton needs careful study.

Christopher's project was selected to participate in the 13 April 2000 Kern County Science Fair. He was able to tell people about his project and show how the untuned Bessler pendulum worked (or rather didn't work). He also displayed my first copy of Collins' book. Outside the auditorium there was an exhibition regarding global warming. On display there were high efficiency devices, solar energy solutions, and a 70 mile-per-gallon automobile (which I supposed had regenerative braking as that is what I heard in news reports about such new cars). On 1-2 March 2001, Christopher presented his related science fair project, "Toward an Orffyrean Roller Bearing: Don't Lube It", which used a cylindrical can rolling inside another cylindrical can. The confirmed hypothesis was "A bearing based on rolling without rubbing will go faster in a clean unlubricated environment than in a clean lubricated environment." The average of the total times (for rolling back and forth) for three of Christopher's tests were 36 seconds (for no lubrication), two seconds (using canola oil lubrication), and 10 seconds (after trying to wipe off all the canola oil using paper towels). Christopher's 2001 project was selected to participate in the 4 April 2001 Kern County Science Fair.


Maybe the industrial revolution would have had a completely different character and science would have proceeded differently if say either Peter the Great or Karl the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel had just paid the large price that Bessler was asking for. To me it seems amazing that Karl did not pay the price since he had the money and he knew by his actual observation within the covering (see Collins' pp. 20, 89-90, 101, 111, 158) that it was an actual invention without any fraud. The world might have been much different if it could have had the Orffyrean roller bearing sooner and Bessler had been allowed (using money from the sale of his invention) to establish his Fortress of God Christian school (see Collins' pp. 44, 99, 191) to teach the crafts and sciences including mathematics and mechanics.

Bessler's Orffyrean roller bearing is an interesting cooperative-digital-mechanical solution to the weight bearing and friction problem. One could use variants of it for a variety of purposes including the slipping of one plane back and forth above another plane, without transverse plane slippage (unless more transverse bearings for a separate plane are stacked on top). The basic idea is still the cooperation in taking turns. Many feather fencers or heavy clubs each take a single little short walking step (by gently coming down with a "foot" statically bearing the load as the tiny rolling step is taken and gently beginning to retract the step as a neighboring club or feather fencer begins to bear the load). The bottom and top edges of circular arcs will form approximately straight lines above and below if there are enough feet or legs from enough sprockets. With enough legs provided by enough sprockets taking turns, the load borne by a roller would allow smooth transitions during the bearing up of large loads. It would seem amazing if no one has reinvented it since Bessler's days.

Chiastic Labels. The labels of 0, 1, and 2 that I attached to the first three levels of Bessler's tenth level extended chiasm may be appropriate given the chiastic circle, the chiastic first question and the chiastic second scriptural reference. They almost suggest that there are seven chiastic levels within. I don't know if those seven levels have a numerical correspondence or correspond somehow to the letters of Bessler or something else. I just assigned them the first seven letters of the alphabet (or the seven letters often assigned to the usual musical notes). I made the assignment prior to realizing that there were the three outside chiastic levels.


Numerals. In addition to the Bessler pendulum apparently harvesting discrete packets of angular momentum, there seems to be digital-angular relationships permeating the Orffyrean technology. There almost appears to be digital-angular relationships underlying the very Hindu-Arabic numerals that we commonly use. The numerals almost appear to be originating from an even more ancient system for the formation of numerals according to the pattern of the numerals being represented by a symbol having the same number of angles corresponding to that numeral being represented (where say "angles" are greater than zero degrees and less than 180 degrees). I recall being shown in graduate school an informal document suggesting that angle counting idea (and showing many examples of how old numerals were drawn) but since then I have seen no similar document. I apologize for not listing a reference to that angle counting idea but it just never occurred to me then that I should have asked for a reference. I haven't located any specific references other than my memories and older versions of the numerals themselves. If I discover any prior references to the angle counting idea of the numerals, I can list them on my Internet sites. One should recall that the Germanic languages form a major ancient branch in the tree formed out of the Indo-European language (Outline History of the English Language by Harold Whitehall, p. vii of Webster's New Twentieth Century Dictionary). I understand that there are modern people with a Germanic tradition who consistently draw their ones with a single angle at the top and who cross their sevens (which would give four plus one angles immediately for the 7 symbol with only two more angles needing to come from somewhere else). Whether this is coincidence or there is some reason underlying this I just don't know. I found on the Internet a reference containing "In many countries of Europe and Latin America, it is standard to write 7 with a small dash through the slanted line. On the other hand, it is also common to write a 1 that looks like a lambda, with the initial upstroke almost as long as the downstroke. In the US, where 1 is usually a simple stroke, the extra dash through the 7 doesn't distinguish anything except the foreign origin of the writer." You will have to add in the appropriate lines and change the scales to the following as I can not draw them freehand here using the equal spacing font. See my front figure. I am guessing that with the possible exception of "3" where 60 degree angles may be more appropriate, all the "angles" might be either 45 degrees or 90 degrees if drawn "correctly" according to a hypothetical older pattern. The "3" might not be an exception as 45 or 90 degrees may be reasonable. The "angles" for 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 are intended to be represented by right angles. Seven might have alternatively been drawn differently in that document I saw with two more right angles at the end of the top instead of the horizontal line at the bottom. I just can't remember that document perfectly.












On 16 September 2000, I noticed that the numerals zero and seven could be considered as special exceptions of somewhat of an angular formation pattern. The symbol for zero ("0") contains no such angles (greater than zero degrees and less than 180 degrees) as it is a single stroke slowly curving back onto itself by its circular nature. The following is roughly the pattern I noticed. The numeral for one ("1" as I show it above) has a single angle at the top. Adding an angle at the bottom of that "1" gives 2. Adding an angle at the bottom of "2" gives 3. Letting the segment at the top of "3" hinge around and connect the top to the lower portion gives 4. Disconnecting that segment from "4" and adding two angles to the bottom gives 5. Finish connecting the last added bottom segment in "5" to the upper portion gives 6. Seven is not formed by just adding to "6" an angle near its top (maybe since one might imagine that it would still look too much like 6). Nonetheless, finish connecting the last added end segment of that imaginary "not 7 symbol" to the bottom portion gives 8. Breaking a connection within the bottom portion of "8" from the upper portion and adding in two angles below gives 9. Seven was a definite break in the working pattern of simple alteration of the top and/or bottom ends to result in the net addition of an angle while maintaining classifiability. Seven or "7" as I depicted it above shows a cross (possibly in reference to the first coming of our Lord) and I could speculate also signifies to keep the seventh day holy. Maybe this is just an interesting coincidental curiosity or maybe there is something to it, as it seems to explain various historical numerical shape facts. Whatever the situation, I am sure that many items of fine technology and heritage have not come down to us from our past.


On occasion through by our digging, careful pondering, and efforts we can coax back or reconstruct or recreate some of our heritage back into view that was to some extent lost. I would guess that Bessler's Orffyrean technology could have been known at much earlier times than that of Bessler but if so, the technology did not or was not allowed to come down to us. Collins in his book has also speculated that the invention behind the Bessler wheel might have been known in times past. See pp. 219-223 of Collins' book. Maybe if an Orffyrean geared roller bearing were available, this might have allowed Collins' speculative yin-yang water compartments device (based both on the oldest versions of the yin-yang symbol with a wavy version connection and on the culturally-diverse ancient swastika symbol of prosperity and good fortune, when two such yin-yang machines are joined at 90 degrees out of phase) to work. See pp. 222-223 of Collins' book for the yin-yang discussion. This would also be consistent with what Bessler wrote as we read in translation on p. 142 of Collins' book, "I have many different kinds of machine all running on different principles. They can be moved by weights, balls, springs, internal gears, internal water, oil, alcohol and wind." The top fluid flow would slightly resemble the rotational motion of the torque governor wheel going in just one direction. Please don't prejudge the testable Orffyrean technology on the basis of any vivid imaginations of others or mine regarding the numerals. Please don't laugh at the idea of the confounding of the one language and scattering of the people near the time of the tower of Babel. See Gen. 11:4-9, Omni 1:22, Mosiah 28:17, Ether 1:33,35, Gen. 2:19. Are there any clues about what the language prior to the tower was? Could that language have contained more than a single base numbering system? We see that the Jaredites brought records with them (Ether 8:9) but was any numbering system (or systems) confounded (corresponding to those records and the language of Jared)? See Ether 1:33-37, 3:24. A single language might have had a single numbering system prior to the confounding (or I am not imagining that the most original system had multiple bases and I am again speculating about it having a common base10). The numbering system of the Mayan is apparently base 20 but I wonder if there could have been any other numbering system used by the archeological Olmecs which Palmer in his book In Search of Cumorah on p. 214 said, "We have been able to demonstrate that the archaeological Olmecs were the Jaredites or rival lineages of the same times." I wonder if the numbering system had been confounded prior to the Lord not confounding the language of Jared (see Ether 1:34-37, 3:24). If hypothetically there had been an original numerical digital basis for the shape of the numerals, then it might not be so far fetched that surviving remnants (in dispersed geographic locations) of such a numbering system might contain clues to such an original system especially if special significance had somehow been attached to the numerals. Please don't laugh at the idea of the continents being divided prior to the end of the days of Peleg. See Gen. 1:9, 10:25, 11:16-19, 1 Chr. 1:19, Ether 13:2, D&C 133:24. If you laugh at the wrong things, you might later realize that you should not have been laughing. You are welcome to gently laugh at any vivid speculation of mine that is wrong (but I hope you make sure that you know that it really is wrong first). If you have proof that it is wrong, I might join in on the chuckles. I have been known to make mistakes. I have been known to make mistakes.

Before I leave the speculative subject of angles within our digital numerals, I thought I should make some further comments lest someone says, "I still don't see any possible regular working pattern in the supposed formation of the numerals." The working transition patterns themselves could for example be thought of as an introduction followed by a short hidden second level chiasm about the formation of the working "not 7" (like Bessler's "little book" is an introduction followed by a seventh level hidden chiasm). The narrative of the formation of the numerals 1, 2, 3, and 4 could be thought of as the formation of four kingdoms. The first as a break in a great circle by inserting an angle to form 1. The second and third are each formed by the addition of an angle from below. The fourth kingdom or numeral is formed by rebellion at the top. I will in words just say the working second level chiasm about the gem. (AA) Transform 4 to 5 by disconnecting the upper portion above from the lower portion while adding two angles below. (BB) Transform 5 to 6 by connecting the lower portion below to the upper portion. (gem3) Transform 6 to not 7 by adding an angle from above. (BB) Transform not 7 to 8 by connecting the upper portion above to the lower portion. (AA) Transform 8 to 9 by disconnecting the lower portion below from the upper portion while adding two angles below. I don't know if there is any meaning that should be attached to the short chiasm save a vague idea of changing kingdoms upward and downward through repentance or transgression (or turning toward or away from God). Following these lines of thought, I could highly speculatively write the numbers as the following indented expressions.

____________(0) eternal life in celestial kingdom

_________(1) celestial kingdom

______(2) terrestrial kingdom

___(3) telestial kingdom

(4) kingdom without glory

___(5) telestial kingdom repentance path

______(6) terrestrial kingdom repentance path

_________(7) or (not 7) celestial kingdom

______(8) terrestrial kingdom transgression path

___(9) telestial kingdom transgression path

( ) outer darkness transgression path

As also seen in the front figure, I could show the not 7 and the alternative 7 where we note that in addition to the same number of angles, they both have identical angle types.









Surely the German speaking Bessler was familiar with the persistent Germanic convention of crossing sevens and having a single big angle for ones. As Bessler seemed to probe and study almost "everything," I would not be surprised in the least to learn that he had noticed and even studied the idea of the numerals themselves being a representation of the number of angles in each. Maybe he in part chose his tenth level extended chiasm because of the ten numerals. He might have chosen the imagery of broken columns in his "little book" to in part signify aspects of old digital angular technology that had been lost. He almost seemed to put special emphasis on the six "pointed" working snowflake which may have connection to the standard six-lobe six-hole Orffyrean sprocket wheel.

I have done much speculation, questioning, and pondering in the formation of this long paper. I hope that this does not bother people. These were the very things that Bessler seemed to regard as necessary for learning the truth of his invention (according to his "little book" from a properly mature or fully-developed understanding of his "little book"). If anyone thinks that my speculations have gone too far afield, hopefully they will just ignore such and press onward with what may appear to be more fruitful areas for speculation. If I am right about any of my many speculations, I hope that you will ponder somewhat about Bessler's pendulum according to the continuation of Bessler's riddle. If my writings somehow help even one person to consider coming unto Christ, then I think that my efforts have not been wasted.


First and Last Chiasms. On 10 November 2000, I took some notes as the Know Your Religion speaker, Lowell B. Anderson (who traveled to Ridgecrest, California from the Orem Utah Institute of Religion), quoted the chiasm D&C 29:30 "... that the first shall be last, and that the last shall be first in all things whatsoever I have created ..." and gave many examples of this idea. He referred to 2 Ne. 11:4 which I had discovered a couple of months prior contains a chiastic center. With Christ's atonement and resurrection at the center of a great earth history chiasm, he compared many things about it such as (1) earth created (with there is to be a new heaven and earth), (2) the garden of Eden (with earth to be renewed), (3) Enoch had his city taken unto God (with Enoch's city to be restored in righteousness), and (5) Joseph in Egypt (with the latter-day Joseph). Apparently volumes can be written on this great chiasm but I will just cut short the subject by making some guesses regarding the Bessler pendulum. Using temporal chiastic numbering, I could in quite speculative fashion guess the correspondences of (4) Noah possibly carrying a Bessler-like pendulum aboard the ark as the earth is baptized by water (with the Bessler pendulum to be used when the earth is baptized by fire) and (6) the Bessler-like pendulum possibly being used in Egypt as hidden technology after the time of Joseph ( with Bessler inventing his hidden pendulum prior to the time of the latter-day Joseph). Noah could have much used such a machine as the Bessler pendulum during his ark building. If portions of the ark are ever found on the mountains of Ararat (Gen. 8:4), it might be useful to check for evidence of machinery used in its construction. I have heard of evidence of precise machinery used in the construction of Egyptian pyramids built prior to the time of Joseph. There is a scripture referring to machinery being used in the Americas (Jarom 1:8) prior to the time of Christ. Many great and marvelous things transpired in the Americas (3 Ne. 5:8, 2 Ne. 26:3) near the time of Christ's coming to the New World (after his resurrection). Prior to the time of Joseph in Egypt there was scriptural evidence of over-unity optical devices (Ether 3:4, Ether 3:23-24, Abr. 3:1). Since the coming of the latter-day Joseph there have been scriptural references to the Urim and Thummim (JS-H 1:35,59, D&C 17:1).

On 3 December 2000, I got a copy of a packet of chiastic information from Sister Larsen who had gotten it a couple months before from a prior Stake President, David Dodge. It contained much information on the chiasmus that I had not seen and many chiasms that I had not previously encountered. It contained a chiastic world history with a different structural emphasis than that one shown by the Know Your Religion speaker. The packet also contained a page stating many reasons this literary form was used by the ancient Hebrews. I just quote one of the reasons as it gives additional rationale why Bessler may have (1) taken out spacings, (2) removed the question mark, and (3) altered capitalizations in his First and Last's question as applied to his 1717 invention, SenDIhrDanaVchnoChVnVerstanDIg specifically, "The form can be aesthetically pleasing as well as internally organizing to the ancients, i.e. ancient texts were written in a steady stream of letters from the beginning of a book to the end sometimes even without spaces between the words. Thus chiastic writing assisted in indicating units of thought, etc." Maybe Bessler was hinting that one should look for the correct structure of his little book puzzle according to the ancient Hebraic poetic patterns.

Related Spiritual Thoughts

The glory of God is intelligence as we see in D&C 93:36. Seek words of wisdom out of the best of books and seek learning by study and faith (D&C 88:118 or D&C 109:7). See the Bessler reference B. Weisch. 7 which I believe means the book of The Wisdom of Solomon 7. It is found in the Apocrypha and it makes sense with respect to Bessler's life (especially with respect to his pursuit and acquisition of wisdom). Again it is interesting that Bessler refers to his "little book." I think that the term is appropriate as it opens up a book of many things including spiritual thoughts.


From the smallest snowflake to the largest planet, from the greatest circling herd to the least round "wheel," from the most glorious peacock tail to the most playful pup, from the oldest column to the newest chain, from the slowest crab to the fastest wind, and from the sharpest anvil blow to the quietest of questions, "... all things denote there is a God ..." See Alma 30:44. Bessler's pendulum is included in all things. I think that Bessler is making a statement regarding the universality of the underlying subject matter by the many varied examples that he chose within his "little book."

I think that the many new energy innovations are examples of D&C 1:19, "The weak things of the world shall come forth and break down the mighty and strong ones, ..."

I thought I would write a few words with possible application to the Bessler pendulum that were spoken on 2 April 2000 in the fifth session of the 170th Annual General Conference of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Elder Neal A. Maxwell of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles said, "Let us remember in our age of spin, the only spin God desires is our freely turning away from sin and turning to Him. Therefore, the Lord does not seek to overwhelm us but instead to help us overcome the world! (see D&C 64:2; Rev. 3:21)." I think that there were many other things in that general conference that had application to the Bessler wheel/pendulum situation (if one were listening for them). Anyone interested can study those talks in the May 2000 Ensign or by accessing them on the Internet at or Applicable words of the 170th Semiannual General Conference of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (held on October 7th and 8th) may be found for example in the November 2000 Ensign. Applicable words of the 171st Annual General Conference (held on 31 March and 1 April 2001) may be found in the May 2001 Ensign.

We need to turn unto God and not gravitate to the power and binding influence of the devil. Though the Bessler pendulum may suggest ways of turning to God, hopefully people will be wise enough not to worship it as an idol. Still, it seems reasonable that it either came from God or the devil. Prior to Bessler's invigorating dream, Bessler claimed help from God. See Collins' book pp. 28, 29, 32, 65, and 141. I believe with the information available to me that it comes from God though I can imagine readers coming to the opposite conclusion from the information I presented in my paper. I think that those who say it comes from neither God nor the devil need to do much more studying (including the scriptures), applying the scriptures to their own lives, and pondering. If a person wants to know if it comes from God or the devil, then they ought to apply the tests found in Moro. 7:5-19 which in part says that "... for every thing which inviteth to do good, and to persuade to believe in Christ, is sent forth by the power and gift of Christ; wherefore ye may know with a perfect knowledge it is of God. But whatsoever thing persuadeth men to do evil, and believe not in Christ, and deny him, and serve not God, then ye may know with a perfect knowledge it is of the devil; ..."

Discussion Conclusions


Bessler's Little Book Initially Decoded. With God's help, I believe that I "solved" to a certain extent the tenth-extended-level hidden chiasm of Orffyreus. I solved the chiasm in the opposite order from what Bessler might have expected. I started at the gem center of Bessler's "little book" parable and worked my way out to the very covers of Bessler's Apologia (not realizing ahead of time that there were even outside hidden chiastic levels). When I began I didn't even realize that Bessler's "little book" was a parable that needed an interpretation. My solution or interpretation of Bessler's "little book" came in parts (a little here and a little there).

The interpretation of Bessler's "little book" may have been especially difficult for others to penetrate, because with only hints, the interpretation was often symbolic from the perspective of a fully operating Bessler pendulum. The symbolic viewing perspective was almost always full-face which Bessler meant was from a side half perspective of his pendulum to show the full or entire wheel faces and many of the other workings of his pendulum. As Bessler implied in his "little book", it is almost the situation of one having to know the mature or complete solution before one could even see that portions of the solution were being presented before our very eyes and discussed by their symbolic presentations. This was a clever perspective of Bessler so as to clearly establish his invention ownership should someone else happen to discover it (but without giving away the invention for free should it not be separately discovered). I think that my being a student of the scriptures and familiar with such scriptural literary devices as the chiasmus, helped in the solution of Bessler's "little book" puzzle.

I think that I have given a reasonable interpretation of Bessler's "little book" I have not explored all the German subtleties especially with regard to it being written in German from the early 1700s. I have only read the portions of Apologia that Collins presented in his book. Maybe someone can make continuations where I left off (and/or correct any errors I might have made). As far as I have opened up Bessler's "little book," I believe it curiously remains a little book and thus needs much more opening up. If someone can not see that it needs to be opened up more, then I would suggest (in accordance with Bessler's 1717 overview question "... Are ye also yet without understanding?" from Matt. 15:16) that such a person needs to be studying and pondering more upon the scriptures so as to apply them to this situation for increased understanding.

Single Pendulum in Covering Wheel. At the heart of each of the wheels made by Bessler, there was a single Bessler pendulum. I do not believe that Bessler used multiple pendula per covering mantle wheel. I think that the thinness of his mantle wheels would have precluded that (given that he needed internal supports for his pendulum and enough room to place his special roller bearings). I suppose that multiple pendula somehow operating out of phase could beneficially reduce the net vibrational stresses on the external support posts relative to the energy produced but could cause maintenance complications. These are factors that the Bessler pendulum engineer might need to consider.


Pendulum Details Covered. Almost all the major technical details for the construction of a Bessler pendulum have been covered in the body of this paper. Missing technical details have been pointed out in this paper and so such need to be carefully investigated. The pendulum basically contains a weight and three sprocket wheels with a chain going around two of the sprocket wheels. The two with a chain going around them were considered by Bessler as a new type of "wheel" though I think of it as more specifically a new wheel-pendulum entity. Still, one might properly say that we are reinventing the Bessler wheel.

I think that the Bessler pendulum meets the simplicity requirement (as claimed by Orffyreus on p. 208 of Collins' book or as quoted by the Landgrave of Hesse on p. 158 of Collins' book). I also think it meets Orffyreus' seemingly impossible remark that it "is so well designed that it is not necessary to stop it to carry out repairs or servicing." See p. 205 of Collins' book. Though I don't think we should add lubricants if we use the special Orffyrean or digital or geared roller bearings that I think Bessler used, all center points near where traditionally lubricants are applied are at least momentarily stationary and so may have small amounts of metallic dust blown out from them occasionally. (Thorough cleaning would be better as it would prevent dust accumulation in unfavorable locations and if built properly there should be very little wear in a clean environment.) The center axis of the large wheel would always be essentially stationary. Under "equilibrium" full-power working conditions, I think there would be six places where the center of the torque governor wheel comes to a momentary stop and similarly six places where the center of the small wheel comes to a momentary stop. For say the center of the small wheel, two of the places on each side are very close to each other. One can tighten say a nut on any portion of the supporting frame when that point comes to an instantaneous stop. If the nut is not fully tightened, one can wait at that place for two half cycles to tighten some more on it (as there are six points within a full back-and-forth pendulum cycle where it comes to a momentary stop). Though Bessler and his brother may have done this, I am not recommending that one should carry out maintenance on a working Bessler pendulum in such a fashion as it could be quite dangerous to be so close to such a device. One incorrect movement could spell disaster. This understanding is according to the description of how the Bessler pendulum apparently works as given in this paper.


The rotating-while-working wheel-mantle was for covering the interior. It concealed or protected the invention, the powering mechanism (which was a Bessler pendulum), from people who might want to steal the idea, claim it as their own, and not pay the inventor for his idea. The wheel covering was also a reasonable safety feature to make sure that people did not get hurt by the motion of the Bessler pendulum. The wheel covering could also protect the contents from environmental conditions that could cause friction and other problems. The weights dropping with loud sounds (as they hit the inside edge of the boards on the outer rim of the covering wheel) were a dramatic distraction to help protect the secret of the real invention. The loud noise from the weights masked the working sounds and low frequency vibrations of the pendulum swinging. The falling-hitting weights may have helped to dissipate some excess energy and help guarantee that the invention not "run away." When in Merseburg Bessler let people feel the weights concealed by his handkerchief (see pp.79, 131 of Collins' book), this just kept people "off the track". Bessler was selectively divulging information about his covering wheel that would help steer them clear of the true nature of its inner powering mechanism. Feeling that the weights were about four pounds and of cylindrical shape reinforced the notion that they were somehow directly the cause of the power source, when in actuality they were just a minor artifact in the distribution of power and which had a main purpose in protecting the invention itself. The noise and vibrations caused by the weights did make it clear that this device produced considerable mechanical power. Wasting some of the power may have been unnecessary from an energy standpoint (but was quite clever from an invention protection viewpoint). If the falling weights were the source of power for the covering wheel as suggested on p. 194 of Collins' book, then Bessler just didn't discuss how the weights were given their power from the Bessler pendulum within the covering wheel. Bessler was again just slyly redirecting people's thoughts away from the correct solution path to protect his invention.

I do not know if a run away situation could have happened. A run away situation might theoretically be possible if the pendulum swings acquired so much energy that the pendulum eventually could go over the top, and so rotating in one direction which would stop the alternate swinging back and forth. What would happen after going over the top is not obvious. Whatever happens, I do not think that it should be operated in that fashion. An easy way to study this is just to try it out on working Bessler pendula (from which little or no energy is being extracted) and see what happens but be prepared to apply some brakes if the situation started to look dangerous. This assumes that new torque-governor-wheel stopping and resumption rules be formed and applied to the corresponding run away situation being studied. I think that rather than studying potentially dangerous run away situations, it would be more fruitful and interesting to study how sufficient energy can be withdrawn and used in such an orderly fashion to guarantee that run away situations do not occur.

I think that the powering of the various wheel-mantles using the Bessler pendula could have been done with the assistance of assorted mechanical gearing, springs, weights, rollers, and ratchets. These items would have been according to the inventor's choice, though where possible I'm sure he used Orffyrean variants to reduce friction. The various external properties of the publicly displayed Bessler mantle wheels were a reflection of the varied mechanical arrangements for power usage by the inventor, Johann Ernst Elias Bessler.

Bessler Persecuted. Not only did Bessler suffer many persecutions in his time (despite the profound evidences in his favor), many since his time have incorrectly labeled him as a fraud. Information about the Bessler wheel has in modern times been suppressed (either intentionally or unintentionally). See pp. 223-224 of Collins' book as an example. It is my hope that because of John Collins' research efforts, my own efforts, and the studies of others, that all trace of or hint of fraudulence about Bessler's wheel will be removed. The world previously rejected the much physical evidence of Bessler's wheel in essence giving partial theory higher priority than fait accompli.


World Needs to Build Pendulum. The world needs to build the invention that it greatly desired but it somehow previously rejected. Because of greed and/or evil, the world would not previously pay for Bessler's wheel. The world could have had it for 100,000 thalers in 1717 if it wanted it enough. It apparently didn't want it enough or the invention sales negotiations just could never seem to go to completion (see pp. 99-100 of Collins' book). With Orffyreus being arrested for fraud, this stopped him from further promoting his machine (despite the unimpressive prosecution evidence and Orffyreus being set free) as we see on p. 168 of Collins' book. Bessler claimed help or assistance from God in building his invention but was not specific about the technical details of the assistance he received (so as not to give away details about his invention). Still, Bessler left valuable clues about it. Mr. John Collins did some impressive research and in the process found many clues. I believe that with help from God and with my own deductions, I have explained many of the clues Collins found. I figure that I have done my part in mostly explaining to the world how the pendulum within worked. I figure that if the world really wants it, then the world needs to find someone or some people willing and mechanically able to actually construct the pendulum using the information that it has been given. It may take some pondering, calculating, simulation, experimentation, and coordination of efforts. Now the world needs to do more self sacrificing if it still really wants it. I hope that the world decides that it wants to build it. As I could (but won't) give examples of how I (unlike Bessler) am in some cases a myopic mechanical klutz (with plenty of room for improvement), I do not believe that I am the person to actually build it. Still, I have provided what I could though. I think that it is time for others to cooperate on building the Bessler pendulum if they really want to see this long delayed miracle of technology. I would hope that they would do so without being blinded by that evil of greed that Bessler had to deal so much with. If people try to bring it forth with blinding dollar signs in their eyes, they might need to think again about it. The Bessler pendulum might not even be able to compete economically with the emerging electromagnetic over-unity engines which appear to be on a path of being incrementally introduced. The appearance of the Bessler pendulum may accelerate the introduction of the electromagnetic over-unity engines.

Pendulum Importance. Though it remains to be seen if Bessler's pendulum will be able to compete economically with the powerful and compact over-unity electromagnetic engines that are just beginning to make their emergence, I believe that scientifically, historically, philosophically, and theologically Bessler's pendulum is important in its own right. There are also many situations where it might be employed beneficially. An example might be (with some initial assistance from others) a cost-effective "low-technology" solution for pumping water in third world countries (without consuming precious human or fuel resources). With low cost energy, much water from the oceans could be desalted and transported to where it is needed. Low cost solar ovens for cooking (assuming the sun has not yet been darkened, see Isa. 13:10) and low cost Bessler pendula/wheels for such mechanical power needs as pumping water might help in restoring many wastelands to fruitfulness. Oil and other so called fossil fuels are too valuable to be in large part just wastefully burned (not to mention the generating of unnecessary atmospheric byproducts). Literal spinoff technology from the Bessler pendulum (for example the Orffyrean roller bearing) may be most useful in reducing friction in those mechanical versions of the over-unity electromagnetic engines which require mechanical rotations (such as in the Kawai and Takahashi engines).


Cold Fusion/Nuclear Reactions. Various similarities between the Bessler wheel and the cold fusion problems have been noted within this paper. Except for the quantum nature of the graviton at the subatomic level for the Bessler wheel problem, primarily both appear to require the careful study of states of essentially-unquantized internal-angular-momenta. Though the restoration of the Orffyrean pendulum or the Orffyrean roller bearing may potentially increase the need for gold (and silver), the interaction of rotating nuclear-ground-states may eventually be able to increase the supply of gold. Scientists as a whole ought not to mistreat cold fusion. If semiconductor research had been treated as poorly as cold fusion research because of similar initially sporadic results, this might have set the development of computers back at least a decade. See IE 25 and 26. Even with greatly improved understanding of the technology, the semiconductor industry still suffers from reproducibility problems in terms of the percentage of defective chips produced. By the USPTO insisting that there can be no patents involving cold fusion, this greatly set back commercial progress in cold fusion. Alternatively to the production of more gold, there may in principle have been newer materials discovered that are stronger and better wearing (than the non-wearing of the gently rubbing clean gold-silver interface) since the time that Bessler or Orffyreus wrote his little book about 284 years ago.

Experiments. Some of the first experiments that might be done on the route to a fully working Bessler pendulum are those associated with the construction of fully operating versions of Bessler's digital-cooperative static-contact-without-slipping Orffyrean or "geared" roller bearing which should be able to bear large loads with little friction (in essentially an angular speed independent fashion). In principle, computer simulations may be useful (with respect to time and money) in this regard with respect to avoiding the many calculations and large number of physical design and performance evaluation experiments that Bessler might have gone through (see pp. 29 and 40 of Collins' book). If low enough friction load-bearing bearings are already in existence, the construction of the Bessler pendulum could be begun (assuming that solutions are on hand for the sensors, the torque governor wheel stopping mechanism, the power extraction mechanism, and a safe braking mechanism in case the situation becomes dangerous). If someone wants to work on a particular sub-portion problem towards a Bessler pendulum solution, I could post that on my Internet sites so others would know what issues are being considered and what progress is being made.


Coordination/Cooperation. Maybe someone else would like to provide a clearinghouse for such information. I would rather that someone else would volunteer to do this as I am not skilled in such things and I have other projects that need my attention. Maybe someone would be willing to set up a newsgroup (or groups) to monitor and coordinate progress toward building and refining versions of the Bessler pendulum (according to its related subproblem solutions so other people won't need to "reinvent the wheel" in solving subproblems anew unless they think they have a better solution). If people do not cooperate in the sharing of information toward the construction of a working Bessler pendulum (with the goal of retaining patent rights for themselves), then this may well slow down the effort. As far as I am concerned, the one year of mature publication prior to patenting expired hundreds of times over (or that Bessler published almost three centuries ago assuming we have sufficient recognition skills to realize what he had actually written in his "little book" and his declaration of faith). Bessler gave many snapshots of the workings inside of his wheel-mantle though his documentation style might be somewhat unusual. He was showing us his pendulum and his Orffyrean technology, if we just had eyes to see and ears to hear the meaning of his words. In hindsight, it should be clear that Bessler was unconventionally documenting the basis of his Orffyrean technology in his multi-level/dimensional figure on the last page of Apologia (though his documentation was in parable form and so adhering to the basic idea of "seek and ye shall find" as found in Matt. 7:7).

I have been willing to share what I know without asking for any portion of the 100,000 thaler invention price that Bessler asked for (see Collins' book pp. 54, 102, 123, 137, 141, 159, 171). (Scouts and adult scouters do not expect or accept payment when they "Do a good turn daily." according to the Scout Slogan.) I have shared this information because I want the pendulum to come forth as soon as possible, as I believe that the devil still does not want the pendulum to come forth, since I suspect the pendulum coming forth will cause some people to consider turning to God and I suppose the pendulum should provide a means of relief (directly or indirectly) for a number of unnecessary temporal burdens. I also think that with my resources and capabilities I could not expediently bring Bessler's pendulum forth all by myself. I am asking you to help each other to bring this thing to pass (and to not fight over Bessler's gift or gifts for ownership like selfish squabbling siblings). Very large numbers of people today might literally be his "children" or rather descendants. I hope that you will not truthfully say to him someday on the other side of mortality, "Father Bessler, I fought hard to deprive your other children of the right to freely use your gift." I suspect Bessler intended to have the gift passed on to the world shortly after his death (as for example Bessler's figure almost "shouts out" his Orffyrean technology with the wonder being that no one heard his message for about three centuries or if someone did they kept quiet about it). With God's help, I have been trying to be an old friend to the world in helping to pass on the greatly delayed gift by providing an interpretation of Bessler's "little book" that the world somehow did not seem to be able to provide for itself.

Just as in Bessler's day there were powers that did not want his invention to come forth, today there are also powers that do not want his invention to come forth. That is why I am trying to make the details of his invention (as best as I could learn) openly available to the world. I am trying to make it difficult for the powers to crush the message. The world will need to remove any suppositional or other errors that I may have made in my analysis of the situation. I believe that the world collectively has responsibility for the delayed gift that Bessler has given. Progress may move forward simultaneously on several fronts: (1) mathematical studies of the Orffyrean technology, (2) theoretical studies of Bessler's pendulum assuming the sub-problem solutions are available, and (3) the sub-problems. The sub-problems include such things as the Orffyrean roller bearing, the angle sensors, the torque governor wheel stopping (and releasing) mechanism, graviton interaction with translationally/rotationally altered nuclei, and the power extraction plan.


Physics. I suspect that little or no "new" physics has been directly found but I suppose that "new" physics will be found during the construction or use of the Bessler pendulum. I think we are very close to finding novel engineering solutions to a quite difficult problem. As clever as Bessler was, he couldn't make matter appear or disappear but he certainly could make its rotational analog (moment of inertia) increase or diminish at will. I suspect that if one "computationally turns the crank" using ordinary physics (assuming only very slight frictional losses in the Orffyrean roller bearings and assuming spin two gravitons) that one will be able to get the same over-unity theoretical results as we see in the Bessler pendulum. One could take this as a mathematical-theoretical conjecture until someone actually replicates the results theoretically. Someone might even be able to replicate the results theoretically for a Bessler pendulum, even before the first Bessler pendulum is built in modern times. I suppose that if no one can (theoretically replicate the over-unity results, as I began a plausibility physical-mathematical argument along such lines, though asymmetrical graviton interactions with respect to angular momentum should have been included), then a working Bessler pendulum would either suggest some new physics or the need for more careful analysis of the situation. Any induced asymmetries at the graviton or subatomic level would especially be of interest or worth study. I wonder if such asymmetry is involved in the energetics of snowflake formation and I wonder if careful reflection on such gave Bessler some small scale clues in the formation of his invention.


The closest thing that I can see with respect to any "new" physics might be the obvious speculative suggestion of a spin 2 graviton possibly being a tightly coupled soliton solution of two spin 1 photons but for all I know this idea may have been studied and discarded long ago based on the superposition principle of such bosons. If so, maybe it is time to reexamine the issue. To say that electromagnetic radiation clearly can not have soliton solutions, would be like ignoring the basic idea of a photon which could itself be considered as an example of a soliton solution of electromagnetic radation. There might be a macroscopic manifestation of the vast amount of radiation coming out (at the speed of light) of the positive and negative charged particles of neutral matter (with not all the vast amount of energy going from a local gating source of the energy to a local attractive gating sink of the energy). If many pairs of the radiation become tightly coupled soliton solutions (with nearly macroscopic cancellation of their electromagnetic "fields") so that spin and directionality survive, then such radiation would be highly penetrating. There happens to be a common physical phenomena with this property and it is called gravity. This sounds a little far fetched but it might qualitatively explain the experimental results of increased diminution of gravity above rapidly spinning YBa2Cu3O7-x superconductors. Has anyone tried to spin a solid YBa2Cu3O7-x superconductor about a horizontal axis (in the fashion of Bessler)? Doing such might exhibit interesting properties regarding gravity above the superconductor. That might even provide a clue to a compact version of an over-unity PERMO device that Collins speculated about. It might need to spin about an Orffyrean roller bearing. When fully operating thick sprocket wheel versions of Bessler's pendulum have been built, one might try to look for very slight diminutions of gravity above it (according to the periodicity of the Bessler pendulum) and so explain qualitatively where the energy might be coming from to run Bessler's pendulum. I think that a little bit of power will have been extracted from the raging powerful outward-flowing river of highly penetrating energy which we call gravity. I consider the "fields" approach to electromagnetics and gravity to be antiquated ideas. I consider the geodesics associated with the space time curvature to also be antiquated as it doesn't fully represent what is really going on. Still tools need not be replaced in an operating realm in which they offer much practical utility. There is no need to unify the electromagnetic and gravitational field theories if the mere concept of a static "field" is inherently flawed (even when transforming the fields to account for reference frame changes). What is described as a "static" field should properly be described in terms of a flow of energy at the speed of light. If gravity is itself composed of light, the scripture D&C 88:12 "Which light proceedeth forth from the presence of God to fill the immensity of space-" would seem to take on new meaning.

Our Sun. Despite popular belief our sun apparently does not principally produce its energy through thermo-nuclear or hot fusion. There has been a longstanding absence of sufficient observed solar neutrinos to account for current or "steady-state" energy production primarily by typical hot-fusion. Also Boscoli has given quite reasonable comments in IE 27 in his "Note on "Thermo" Nuclear Fusion" about the sunspots being holes in the sun's photosphere showing the darker and therefore lower temperature interior (which he notes is consistent with the Ranque phenomenon). If the sun's photons do not principally come from hot fusion, where do they come from? Some have reasonably suggested it comes from cold fusion. While cold fusion may also contribute, my own opinion is that the energy for such photons principally comes from neither hot nor cold fusion. I speculate that some of the gravitational soliton radiation is disassociated in the sun's photosphere (or below it) and so producing much energy. This is consistent with Boscoli's Ranque-related temperature observations. This also explains why there are missing solar neutrinos. The sun is neither in a reduced energy production state nor is it primarily "turned off" as some theorists would indirectly have us believe. Do you really believe that the sun has been "turned off" for many years (or even partially turned off)? I don't think that the theorists were trying to be misleading in claiming that the sun's power is due to hot fusion. It was just that there didn't seem to be any other reasonable alternatives in sight. Maybe now thanks to Bessler and Collins we have a reasonable alternative. The sun could in effect be borrowing its light from elsewhere which is consistent with the scripture D&C 88:12 as well as the explanation for Fig. 5 of Facsimile No. 2 from the Book of Abraham which in part says "...and is said by the Egyptians to be the Sun, and to borrow its light from Kolob through the medium of Kae-e-vanrash, ..."

If your scientific belief is the common belief that the sun obtains its energy from hot fusion then you may unknowingly be subscribing to several other scientific beliefs. (1) You may implicitly believe that the sun is not producing as much energy as it is giving off because of the long standing shortage of observed solar neutrinos. Maybe you believe that the excess energy was produced long ago and it takes a very long time to work its way out from the very high temperature interior. (2) You may implicitly believe that the centuries-old-data of the sunspots' color or brightness is wrong (or maybe that the sunspots are not magnetic holes in the photosphere but rather somehow viewing plugs). (3) You may implicitly be ignoring the Ranque phenomenon as it applies to the sun as it would suggest a lower temperature interior (and not the popular higher temperature interior).


Though I imagine both hot and cold fusion (or what I call the interaction of rotating nuclear states) make their contributions to the sun's energy where they may, I think that there is much more to the full story. Assuming that rotating superconductors have some capability of disassociating the graviton soliton pairs of photons, I suspect that conditions on the sun (such as in rotating plasmas or other rotating materials or rotating nuclear ground states) can also disassociate some of the graviton soliton flux.

Collins' Yin-Yang Device. If you want some clues about how the sun could be disassociating the gravitons, you might ponder Collins' comments regarding a speculative fluid yin-yang device on pp. 222-223 of his book. I suspect that an Orffyrean-roller bearing would be quite helpful, if one wants to actually construct such a device as what John Collins describes. The yin-yang device might be useful for providing some radiant heating in cold places such as northern China, Mongolia, and Russia during the winter if: (1) the fluid chambers were made of some durable heat conducting material as stainless steel, (2) the fluid is not withdrawn during its operation (except for safety pressure relief holes or devices located at the fill holes that Collins depicted), and (3) the device attached to its 90 degree phased yin-yang counterpart is just allowed to keep turning. See the swastika symbol discussion on p. 220-223 of Collins' book. If a yin-yang device and another 90 degree phased yin-yang counterpart device provided insufficient energy to be effective, then they could have a weak Bessler wheel between or beside them to keep them fully operating. Maybe cavity radiant cooling arms and/or air scoops could be added (to decrease vapor loss through the holes by promoting heat exchange with the air) which could make Collins' curved-armed swastika or coupled yin-yang device look more like the normal and reverse swastika (ancient well-being symbol) especially if it were painted that way on the outside. I wouldn't waste the paint especially with our modern associations of the symbol with Hitler's Nazi Germany. Water might be distilled by the yin-yang device say by (1) adding undistilled water through the exterior holes, (2) capping those exterior holes and (3) having the vapor go out through mirrored interior holes to pass through cooling arms where the vapor can be collected. For heating purposes only, maybe the yin-yang compartments could be filled with small dry ball bearings. If Noah used a Bessler-like pendulum, it is not inconceivable that some of the children of Japheth used a yin-yang device such as Collins described or that (through some of the children of Ham) the Bessler-like pendulum and wheel found its way into Egypt.

It is strange how some people can think of others being odd who believe in gravity-powered "perpetual motion" machines but those same first people think there is nothing at all odd in themselves believing the commonly held belief that the sun receives its power from hot fusion. I think that such people need to do a careful self-analysis of their scientific beliefs. When they do so, I would hope that they do not discard belief in God.


Good Neighbors. People really should not be so greedy so as to take away others' things like oil and energy. If we are thrifty or wise stewards of our resources, there is more than enough energy and to spare. See D&C 104:17. What people need to do is to concentrate on being good neighbors to others by helping them bear their burdens that their burdens may be light that all may benefit (as we will see this modern miracle happening in the Orffyrean roller bearing). If we do so, then it should go well for us when we will appear before our resurrected God to be judged according to how well we served him here below. We will have returned or restored unto us that which we sent forth and we will receive our eternal reward in mercy (without robbing justice) because of the grace made possible by his atonement and our actively participating repentance. Those who oppress or neglect the poor (by ungracefully or uncharitably not helping the poor to help themselves), are showing God by their current actions how they desire to be judged of God. With God's help and our diligent efforts, much of that which was lost can be restored to fruitfulness. Both the arid wastelands of earth and the wastelands of the souls can be returned to fruitful fields with the help of God, as we of this world repent and turn unto God (as we begin to show to all the love that God has for us all).

Gospel Message Symbolically in Pendulum. You may often find me at church where we may talk about or learn about the gospel (meaning good news) of Jesus Christ. Better yet than talking with me about the gospel would be to locate the nearest members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or full-time missionaries and talk (in your own language) with them about the gospel of Jesus Christ. I'm sure that the missionaries would be more than glad to do this as they sacrifice their time and resources to proclaim the gospel of our resurrected Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ, to all who might receive the message. This universal gospel message is the real gift or message to the world that the miraculous Bessler pendulum symbolically contains. See the extended chiasm with much parallelism in 3 Ne. 27:5-22 spoken by our risen Lord, Jesus Christ, concerning his gospel. Our universal Savior is the only begotten of the Father in the flesh. Jesus Christ is the Lord God (and master teacher) of the Old World, as well as the New World, as well as worlds without end. If you really want to know more about or turn unto God, you should carefully read, study, ponder, and hearken unto the messages that he has wanted to come forth as contained in The Book of Mormon: Another Testament of Jesus Christ. I am trying to do this.

Extended Symbolic Puzzle. I have faith that the fully working Bessler pendulum will be restored to the earth. After you see the fully functioning Bessler pendulum actually working, I think there is much symbolism in Bessler's pendulum (beyond the surface symbols in Bessler's "little book") for the diligently repentant student of the scriptures to uncover. These symbolisms are with respect to the workings of this universe of ours and these symbolisms may help some come unto our universal Lord and Savior, even Jesus the Christ, in conformity to the extended question that I think Bessler would then seem to be asking us, "(Q7) Are ye also yet without full understanding?"



I acknowledge the diligence and courage of John Collins who authored the book Perpetual Motion: An Ancient Mystery Solved? I have been impressed with the many research insights that Mr. Collins has produced. I would not have considered the Bessler wheel problem if Mr. Collins through the magazine, Infinite Energy, had not informed me of the problem. I acknowledge the help of my brother, Harry F. Park, and Steven Meadows with their helping me to build the untuned prototype of the Bessler pendulum. I have fortunately gotten help on many occasions from my mechanically multi-talented brother (such as related to surprisingly many quality facets of remodeling, repairing, and maintenance that he has mastered in a fashion not unlike that of Bessler). Harry and I often work carefully and maybe a little slower (in our own areas) than most people, but is quantity more desirable than quality? Harry got help from Gerard Kersten in machining out the hole for the bearing for the large wheel. I acknowledge the advice of Tom Frisbee in reducing the friction in the bearings. I acknowledge the experiments done by my son, Christopher G. Park, which showed that the untuned prototype Bessler pendulum did not perform as desired. Though Christopher usually asks me for help, when I on rare occasion have asked Christopher for mechanical or conceptual help, he has been surprisingly helpful. My son asks some of the most amazing questions. I am thankful for his inspiration and example. I acknowledge the assistance of Robert T Robb for advice on getting my first Internet site for the paper and giving me some basic pointers on how I could set up my Internet sites. I am thankful that Christopher's Math Club teacher, Roxann C. Clair, loaned me her parents' copy of The Complete Bible an American Translation (which contains The Apocrypha) which Bible was given to them by Wesley, who referred to himself as "the Pannamint Parson" [sic Panamint]. I am thankful to my Gospel Doctrine Teacher, Charles C. Combs, who located for me the quote on Joseph Smith's trials (somewhat like a comment that my daughter, Grace, stated in a report about Joseph Smith, which she wrote in the 5th grade). I am thankful for the observations of Mike the Bike concerning an actual 10 year working "perpetual motion" machine. I would acknowledge the original builder of the pendulum (that Mike the Bike uses) if I knew who built it. It might have been originally constructed (using four ball bearings) in the 1950's. I appreciate the Mickelsen family letting me borrow their copies of the Ensign so I had access to the articles about the chiasmus. I appreciate the young missionary, Elder Smith, letting me borrow his copy of Charting the Book of Mormon. I appreciate the advice and suggestions from Dr. Melvin Miles regarding cold fusion and his letting me look at his copy of Die Bibel written in German according to the translation by Luther. I am thankful that the young missionary, Sister Larsen, got me a copy of the packet "What is Chiasmus?" as she got it from David Dodge of the Lancaster Sierra Ward. I appreciate my wife helping me to initially rewrite my abstract. I appreciate Chuck Jones' helpfulness in converting different versions of the front figure to .pdf and .jpg file formats.


I am thankful for the generosity and self-sacrifice of the many who reviewed as much of the initial or final versions of this paper as they were willing to review. Some initial reviewers were: C. Kent Bullock (who has a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering), Gerald R. Schiefer, Loretta M. Schiefer, Gerald E. Powell, and Sharon J. Powell. David C. Lauritzen (of the Ridgecrest Fourth Ward who previously gave me some insulating material for my solar oven) looked at the first few pages of my initial paper and gave me some comments. After I told Max Moffitt somewhat about my initial paper, he gave me some comments regarding the overall approach that I might try for my final version. Those reviewers of both the initial and final versions were: John Collins and Lowell H. Wilkins (who has a Ph.D. in Physics and who also was one of the informal reviewers of my cold fusion paper prior to the formal peer review process at the American Nuclear Society's journal Fusion Technology). Those reviewers of only the final version included: Dennis L. Bishop, Chester A. Creider Jr., and anonymous. Anonymous was given an initial version of the paper but thought he/she should wait to be a final reviewer. There may not have been many equations in my paper had not Dr. Wilkins thought that I should have more justification mathematically. [Though Bessler used his symbols to hide his technologies in parable fashion, I suspect that Bessler felt that higher symbolic mathematical description and discussion of his technologies were of far greater importance than particular bulky or implementation-specific ordinary mathematical descriptions of such technologies. Maybe the greatest or most important mathematical entities are of a higher or more symbolic nature.] I received much collective feedback on my paper which I am not attempting to summarize here though I am appreciative of such. I realized from the initial reviewing, that my final paper needed to be a major rewrite of the initial paper. I also made many changes and additions to the final review version. I acknowledge that any errors or incorrect speculations in this paper are my fault (as I have tried to speed up the publication of this long paper). I plan to publish any discovered errata on my Internet sites. I acknowledge in advance any readers who send me previously unreported errors to me (assuming that I am able to recognize my errors as such when they are pointed out to me). I will try to include on my Internet sites a translation of the page numbers from Collins' first edition book that I reference (in this paper) to the comparable page numbers in Collins' second edition book that I would have needed to have referenced.

I appreciate my many teachers who welcomed my numerous questions and tolerated my slowness in completing some tasks (as I sometimes have been extra slow while I was learning or pondering some things as I went along). I am appreciative of my teachers and my children's teachers who were initially more interested in comprehension and quality of doing than in later more robotic speed or volume of output. I appreciate my fourth grade teacher, Mrs. Smith, showing me what she called the X method as a check for multiplication (without casting out nines though effectively the same method as casting out nines or each method equivalent to multiplication modulo 9). I appreciate my older brother, Stan, introducing me to algebra long ago. He has been highly inquisitive in so many areas and he has taught me much good by his good example. I appreciate my multi-talented sister (Jeannette Chavez) and my multi-talented daughter (both of whom also have much musical talent and helped bring good music to me to hear). I acknowledge the help, patience, and love from my family since I embarked on this Bessler wheel paper project. Though I have given almost no direct details of the much help I received from God, I acknowledge that I could not have even begun this project without God's help.

Rights and Use of Information


Copyright Alden E. Park, Tuesday 24 July 2001, Pioneer day

This "as is" speculative paper does not come with any warranty, either expressed or implied with respect to its contents. There are a number of things described in this paper that should be considered as dangerous (such as being too close to an operating uncovered Bessler pendulum or playing with heavy clubs among broken columns) and so should be avoided as much as possible. Although I suggest that people use good judgement prior to building or using or operating or maintaining or doing anything mentioned in this paper, no guarantee (including that of safety) is given with respect to the construction or use or operation or maintenance or performance of anything mentioned in the contents of this paper. Beyond the automatic fair use copyright clause, permission is granted for incidental or noncommercial copies of this paper (which includes the front figure) to be made electronically or otherwise as long as the paper (and front figure) is copied in its entirety and so contains this notice of Rights and Use of Information. Permission is granted to send by e-mail full versions of this paper (and front figure) to e-mail addresses of those requesting copies of this paper. Permission is granted to Cold Fusion Technology, Inc. to publish a review of this paper in their magazine Infinite Energy at their discretion and they also may either put this paper (and front figure) within their commercial Internet site, or insert a link to any Internet site (such as or my original site containing this paper. has permission to put this paper (and front figure) on their Internet site. Mr. John Collins (the author of Perpetual Motion: An Ancient Mystery Solved?) has permission at his discretion to put this paper (and front figure) within his Internet site or insert a link to a place on the Internet containing this paper (and front figure). No other commercial use of this paper (or front figure) is authorized without the express permission of the copyright owner (currently Alden E. Park). Notwithstanding the forgoing, the copyright owner reserves complete discretion and right to deny, revoke, or limit use, including reproduction (electronically or otherwise) of those things governed by the copyright.

References and Notes

Bearden, Tom (Inside -> INDEX -> Correspondents -> Tom E Bearden)

* (1) "Chasing the Wild Dragon: Foundations of a New Science"

* (2) "The Master Principle of EM Overunity and the Japanese Overunity Engines A New Pearl Habor? (modified/corrected on May 20, 1996)

* (3) "Update on the Takahashi Engine"

* (4) "Technical Background on Regauging a System to Provide Free Excess Energy"


Bessler wheel -

* Apologische Poesie und Poetische Apologie von seinem Mobile Per Se und Perpetuum Mobile by Orffyreus (or Johann Ernst Elias Bessler) (1716/1717) Germany.

* Bessler's Wonderful Wheel (Article, 1956) by Frank Edwards, [].

* Perpetual Motion: An Ancient Mystery Solved? by John Collins, 1997, Permo Publications; PO Box 2001; Leamington Spa; CV32 6YQ; United Kingdom (UK), ISBN No. 0 9531615 0 1.

* "Perpetual Motion: An Ancient Mystery Solved? Comments" by Eugene Mallove, IE, Vol. 4, Issue 21, Aug-September 1998, p. 53.

* "The Legendary Wheel of Orffyreus A Review of Perpetual Motion" by Mike Carrell, IE, Vol. 4, Issue 21, Aug-September 1998, pp. 53-55.

* "Comments on Perpetual Motion" by Thomas Phipps, Jr., IE, Vol. 4, Issue 21, Aug-September 1998, p. 55.

* "Interview with John Collins, Author of Perpetual Motion - An Ancient Mystery Solved?" by Susan Seddon, IE, Vol. 4, Issue 21, Aug-September 1998, pp. 55-56.

* "Bessler's Wheel - An Explanation?" by Steve O'Donnell, IE, Vol. 4, Issue 21, Aug-September 1998, pp. 57, 69.

* Response by John Collins to IE #21 Reviews of his book "Perpetual Motion: An Ancient Mystery Solved? Comments" by John Collins IE Vol. 4, Issue 23, January/February 1999, p.61-62, 68.

* John Collins, Perpetual motion: An Ancient Mystery Solved?

* "Untuned Bessler Pendulum Effectiveness" science fair project by Christopher Park at James Monroe Middle School held in Ridgecrest, CA on 9 March 2000 and at the Kern County Science Fair held in Bakersfield, CA on 13 April 2000.

* Alden E. Park, 16 March 2000 until account deleted for unknown reason prior to 17 November 2000, contained various Bessler pendulum communications

* Alden E. Park, 29 May 2000 - current, Some Thoughts on a Simple Explanation of Bessler's Wheel.

* Alden E. Park 4 Dec 2000 - current, 922 W. Franklin Ave., Ridgecrest, CA 93555-5110

* Though my current Bessler-wheel-related Internet sites are listed at the top of this paper, if you can't locate a currently correct Internet site with my full paper and/or any appropriate updates or errata, you may send me your e-mail address so that I can send you an appropriately current Internet site name. Please check the listed sites first.

* "Toward an Orffyrean Roller Bearing: Don't Lube It"science fair project by Christopher Park at James Monroe Middle School held in Ridgecrest, CA on 12 March 2001 and at the Kern County Science Fair held in Bakersfield, CA on 4 April 2001.

* 9 July 2001 - current, Some Thoughts on a Simple Explanation of Bessler's Wheel.

Bible -

* Die Bibel oder die ganze Heilige Schrift Des Alten und Neuen Testaments nach der Deutschen Ubersetzug D. Martin Luthers.

* The Complete Bible an American Translation (1939), thirteenth impression 1949, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.

* The Holy Bible containing the Old and New Testaments translated out of the original tongues: and with the former translations diligently compared and revised, by his majesty's special command Authorized King James Version with explanatory notes and cross references to the standard works of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1979.


Book of Mormon Geography -

* Palmer, David A. In Search of Cumorah: New Evidences for the Book of Mormon from Ancient Mexico (1981) Horizon Publishers & Distributors, P.O. Box 490, 50 South 500 West, Bountiful, Utah, 84010.

* "Book of Mormon Geography" by John E. Clark in Vol. 1 of the Encyclopedia of Mormonism (1992) pp. 176-179.

chiasmus -

* "A Clear Poetic Voice" by Paul R. Cracroft, January 1984 Ensign p. 28-31.

* "Chiasmus in Mayan Texts" by Allen J. Christenson, October 1988 Ensign p. 28-31.

* "Book of Mormon Authorship" by D. Brent Anderson and Diane E. Wirth in Vol. 1 of the Encyclopedia of Mormonism (1992) pp. 166-167.

* "Book of Mormon Literature" by Richard Dilworth Rust and Donald W. Parry in Vol. 1 of the Encyclopedia of Mormonism (1992) pp. 181-185.

* Charting the Book of Mormon: visual aids for personal study and teaching by John W. Welch and J. Gregory Welch (1999). The Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS) at Brigham Young University, P.O. Box 7113, University Station, Provo, Utah 84602

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, publications, Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.A. -

* The Holy Bible containing the Old and New Testaments translated out of the original tongues: and with the former translations diligently compared and revised, by His Majesty's special command Authorized King James Version with explanatory notes and cross references to the standard works of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1979.

* The Book of Mormon Another Testament of Jesus Christ 1981, printed March 1994, First English edition published in 1830.

* The Doctrine and Covenants of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints containing revelations given to Joseph Smith, The Prophet, With some additions by his successors in the Presidency of the Church, 1981.

* The Pearl of Great Price a selection from the revelations, translations, and narrations of Joseph Smith first Prophet, Seer, and Revelator to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1981.

* "The Living Christ: The Testimony of the Apostles, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints" January 1, 2000 (April 2000 Ensign), pp. 2-3 or on in various languages.

* The Ensign (ISSN 0884-1136) is published monthly by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 50 East North Temple Street, Salt Lake City, Utah 84150-3224, U.S.A.

* the official home page of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints contains portions in various languages (more than 34).


cold fusion -

* "Electrochemically induced nuclear fusion of deuterium" by Martin Fleischmann, Stanley Pons, and Marvin Hawkins, J. Electroanal. Chem., Vol. 261, No. 2A, April 10,1989, pp. 301-308; Errata, Vol. 263, No. 1, May 10, 1989, pp. 187-188.

* "Heat and Helium Production in Cold Fusion Experiments" by M. H. Miles, B. F. Bush, G. S. Ostrom, and J.J. Lagowski, Proc. 2nd Annual Conf. Cold Fusion, 29 June - 4 July 1991, p. 363, SIF (1991).

* "Some Thoughts on a Simple Mechanism for the 2H + 2H -> 4He Cold Fusion Reaction" by Alden Park, Fusion Technology, American Nuclear Society, Vol. 24, No. 3, November 1993, pp. 319-323.

* "Transistors and Cold Fusion Part 1" by Jed Rothwell, IE, Vol. 5, Issue 25, May/June 1999, pp. 32-34.

* "Transistors and Cold Fusion Part 2" by Jed Rothwell, IE, Vol. 5, Issue 26, July/August 1999, pp. 46-48.

* "Calorimetric studies of Pd/D2O+LiOD electrolysis cells" by M. H. Miles, J. Electroanal. Chem., Vol. 482, No. 1, 29 February 2000, pp. 56-65.

* "A Critical Evaluation of the Pons-Fleischmann Effect: Part 1" by Edmund Storms, IE, Vol. 6, Issue 31, May/June 2000, pp. 10-20,22.

* "APS Meeting Hosts Second Cold Fusion Session" by Eugene Mallove, IE, Vol. 6, Issue 31, May/June 2000, pp. 21-22.

* "Summary Report on ICCF8: The Eighth International Conference on Cold Fusion, May 21-26, 2000 Lerici, Italy" by Jed Rothwell and Eugene Mallove, IE, Vol. 6, Issue 32, July/August 2000, pp. 25-32, 68.

* "A Critical Evaluation of the Pons-Fleischmann Effect: Part 2" by Edmund Storms, IE, Vol. 6, Issue 32, July/August 2000, pp. 52-59, 70.

* Fusion Technology, Vol. 38, No. 2, September 2000, pp. 253-254, indicates that the Seventh Russian Conference on Cold Nuclear Transmutation of Chemical Elements was held 27 September through 2 October 1999 in Dagomys, Russia near Sochi. The next conference had been previously scheduled for September and October 2000.

* "Excess Heat: Why Cold Fusion Research Prevailed" review by Scott Chubb (of 365 page book by Charles G. Beaudette published by Oak Grove Press, available through,, Fusion Technology, American Nuclear Society, Vol. 39, No. 2 March 2001, pp. 288-290.

* (which is automatically linked to ) Infinite Energy Magazine Online - Cold Fusion and New Energy Technology.

dictionary -

* Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary G. & C. Merriam Co., Springfield, Mass., U.S.A. (1949).

* Webster's New Twentieth Century Dictionary of the English Language Unabridged 2nd Edition, William Collins + World Publishing Co., Inc. (1975).

Electromagnetic Fields and Waves by Paul Lorrain and Dale R. Corson, 2nd Edition (1970), W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, pp. 42, 464-465.

family history -

* Ancestral File published in say 1999 by Intellectual Reserve, Inc. is updated and available at many Family History Centers around the world or updated much frequently on FamilySearch Internet Genealogy Service.


gravity -

* Gravitation by Charles W. Misner, Kip S. Thorne, and John Archibald Wheeler, W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, 1973.

* "A Possibility of Gravitational Force Shielding by Bulk YBa2Cu3O7-x" by Eugene Podkletnov and R. Nieminen, Physica C, Vol. 203 (1992), pp. 441-444.

* "Table-Top Antigravity?" by Chris Tinsley, IE, Vol. 2, Issue 9, July/August 1996, pp. 49-50.

* "Gravitational Force of the Sun" by Pari Spolter, Book Reviewer: T. E. Phipps, Jr., IE, Vol. 2, Issue 12, January/February 1997, pp. 46-47.

* "Force and Gravity" by Frank Znidarsic, IE, Vol. 4, Issue 22, October/November 1998, pp. 60-62.

* "Exploitation of Gravity Field Energy" by Thomas Valone, IE, Vol. 5, Issue 25, May/June 1999, pp. 26,59.

History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Period I. History of Joseph Smith, the Prophet by himself, Volume IV, An Introduction and Notes by B. H. Roberts, Second Edition Revised, Deseret Book Company, Salt Lake City, Utah 1970, Copyright by George Albert Smith for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1949.

A Latter-day Saint Library (software) - (available at many libraries) includes:

* Encyclopedia of Mormonism (1992).

* Teachings of Gordon B. Hinckley (1997).

Marinov motor -

* "The Marinov Motor - A Brief History of Mine" by Jeffery D. Kooistra, IE, Vol. 3, Issue 17, December 1997 - January 1998, pp. 40-42.

* "Demystifying the Marinov Motor" by Thomas E. Phipps, Jr., IE, Vol. 3, Issue 17, December 1997 - January 1998, pp. 43-48.

* More on the Marinov Motor ... "The Marinov-Motor is Not a Homopolar Motor" by Jeffery D. Kooistra, IE, Vol. 3, Issue 18, February 1998 - March 1998, pp. 49-50.

* "Motor-in-a-Wheel: An Application of the Marinov Motor" by Thomas E. Phipps, Jr., IE, Vol. 4, Issue 19, April 1998 - May 1998, pp. 62-71,85.

* "The Warlock's Wheel" by Jeffery D. Kooistra, IE, Vol. 5, Issue 27, September 1999 - October 1999, pp. 49,66.

Mechanics by Keith R. Symon, 3rd Edition (1971) Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., pp. 220, 225, 261.

Mormonism -

* Mormon Doctrine by Bruce R. McConkie, 2nd Edition (1966), 7th Printing , 1986, Publishers Press, Salt Lake City, Utah.

* Encyclopedia of Mormonism (1992) edited by Daniel H. Ludlow, Macmillan Publishing Company, New York.


over-unity EM engines -

* "Magnetic 'Wankel' for Electric Cars" Popular Science, June 1979, pp. 80-81

* "Motive Power Generating Device," by Teruo Kawai, U.S. Patent No. 5,436,518, 25 July 1995 []

* "Travels in the New Energy Age" by Chris Tinsley, IE, Vol. 1, No. 5&6, Nov 1995/Feb1996, pp. 28-30.

* "The Takahashi Magnets and Motor", IE, Vol. 1, No. 5&6, Nov 1995/Feb1996, pp. 35-37

* "The Master Principle of EM Overunity and the Japanese Overunity Engines" by Tom Bearden, IE, Vol. 1, double issue #5&6, (Nov 1995/Feb 1996), pp. 38-55.

* "MEG: Over-Unity Motor Breakthrough?", IE, Vol. 6, No. 35, Jan/Feb 2001, p. 20, listed a coefficient of performance of 16 = 1600%.

Ranque effect -

* 'Note on "Thermo" Nuclear Fusion' by Renzo Boscoli, IE, Vol. 5, Issue 27, September 1999 - October 1999, pp. 13-26.



Abr. = Abraham

BD = Bible Dictionary (found near the back of The Holy Bible, 1979)

B.S. = Bachelor of Science

Chr. = Chronicles

Cor. = Corinthians

D.C. = District of Columbia

D&C = Doctrine and Covenants

Dr. = Doctor

EM = electromagnetic

eV = electron Volts

Fig. = Figure

Figs. = Figures

ft = foot (or feet)

Gen. = Genesis

Hel. = Helaman

ie. = id est (or that is)

IE = Infinite Energy

Isa. = Isaiah

J. Electroanal. Chem. = Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry

Jr. = Junior

JS-H = Joseph Smith - History

Jun. = Junior

Matt. = Matthew

Matth. = Matthew

MeV = million electron Volts

mm = millimeters

Moro. = Moroni

M.S. = Master of Science

Ne. = Nephi

No. = Numberp. = page

PERMO = perpetual motion (Collins' book p. 210)

Ph.D. = Doctor of Philosophy

pp. = pages

St. = Saint

UNM = University of New Mexico

U.S. = United States [of America]

U.S.A. = the United States of America

USPTO = U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

Vol. = Volume



accelerate, accelerating, acceleration 3, 31, 44-45, 48, 52, 75

afield 69

angular amplitude 3, 19, 31, 33-35, 53, 55-56

angular moment(a, um) 3, 13-14, 30, 35-39, 41, 52-53, 56, 65, 75, 78

angular speed 20, 31, 33-34, 38, 52-53, 59, 76

angular velocity 13-14, 19, 32-33, 37-38, 52-53, 63

Apologia, Apologie 1-2, 4, 7, 22, 26-27, 29, 31, 35-36, 38, 42, 44-45, 47, 50, 71-72, 77, 84

army 12, 35, 37, 61

atom(s), atomic 3, 13-14, 30, 33, 37-39, 45, 75, 78

back 7-9, 11-12, 15, 19-20, 22, 30-31, 36-38, 41, 46, 48, 52, 58, 63-67, 73-74, 76, 89;

backed 9; background 4, 7, 13, 15, 39, 84

Bakersfield, Kern, California 62, 85

battle 41, 47, 63

Bearden, Tom E. 15-17, 64, 84, 89

Bessler 1-4, 8, 12, 15, 18, 20, 22-24, 27-28, 43, 45, 48-49, 54, 59-60, 63-65, 70-71, 73-74, 76-77

Bessler('s) pendulum 1-5, 8, 14-15, 20-24, 26-28, 30-31-35, 38-43, 45, 48, 50-59, 61-65, 69-78, 80-83, 85

Bessler('s) wheel, cover(ing) wheel, mantle-wheel 1-3, 5, 10-13, 15, 17-22, 30, 35, 38, 41-42, 44-45, 50, 59, 61-62, 67, 71-73-74-76, 80-81, 83-85

bicycle(s) 3, 8, 13, 18-20, 50, 54, 58

Bike, Mike the 54-55, 82

The Book of Mormon Another Testament of Jesus Christ 2, 6-7, 23-26, 43, 60, 81-82, 85-86

Boscoli, Renzo 15, 79, 89

Bullock, C. Kent, Dr. 56, 82

California 4, 11, 69

chain(s) 3, 13, 19, 21, 30-31, 33, 35-38, 42, 49-52, 56-58-59, 70, 72

chiasm(s), chiasmus, chiastic 2, 5, 12, 23-24-28, 39, 43, 58, 65, 68-69-72, 81-82, 86

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 6, 12, 22, 61, 71, 81, 85-86, 88

cold fusion 4-5, 11-13-14, 20, 53, 60, 62, 64, 75-76, 79, 82, 84, 86-87

Collins, John 1, 4-8, 11-12, 15, 17-18, 20, 22-23, 26-28, 35, 44-46, 48-50, 53-56, 58-65, 67, 71-85, 90

Colorado 4, 10-11

computer(s) 11, 76

constrain(ed, ing, s, t), restrain(ing, t) 2, 5, 36, 38, 51-52, 55, 58; unconstrained 13; unrestrained 29

create, creating, creation, creative, recreate 11, 13, 24, 30, 35, 45-48, 56, 59, 67, 69

daughter 12, 63, 82-83

day(s) 1, 4, 7-8, 11, 15-17, 24, 27, 53, 59-61, 65, 67, 69-70, 77, 83

definition(s) 2, 16-18, 52

Democritus 37

devil 29, 41-42, 59-60, 71, 77

dimension(al, ally, s) 7, 21, 39, 77

down 3, 11-12, 19, 24, 29, 31-39, 45, 49, 53, 55, 58-59, 62, 65, 67, 71, 76

dream, daydream 7, 12, 20, 31, 54, 56, 59, 71

Earth, earth 9, 32, 39-40, 43, 55-56, 60, 62, 69, 81; earthly 42

effort(s) 9, 12, 16, 43, 67, 69, 74-75, 81

Einstein, Albert 56, 64

electromagnetic(s), electromagnetism 4, 15-17-18, 56, 64, 75, 78, 87, 89

energy 1-4, 7-8, 10-11, 13-14, 16-21, 24, 27, 29-33, 35-41, 44-47, 49, 51-58, 63-64, 71-75, 78-80, 84-85, 88-89

engineer, engineering 50, 58, 72, 77, 82

evil 16, 26, 29-30, 40-41, 71, 74-75

experiment(s), experimental, experimentation 1, 5, 7, 9-10-15, 18-19, 21, 45, 49-50, 52, 54-56, 58-59, 63, 75-76, 78, 82, 86

faith 22-23, 61, 70, 81

Faith, Articles of 61

faith, declaration of 4, 21-22, 41, 76

familiar 25, 48, 69, 72

family 9, 12, 50, 63, 82-83, 87

Father, father(s, 's) 8, 29, 32, 40-41, 60-61-62, 77, 81; dad 8; grandfather 7-9

feedback 7, 83

field(s) 10, 13, 17-18, 64, 78-79, 81, 87-88

fight(s) 29, 77; fought 29, 77; contention 35

Fischbeck, George, Dr. 8, 12

force(ed, s) 10, 13, 18, 44, 53, 55, 60, 87-88; reinforced 37, 73

forth 19, 24, 30-31, 33, 37-39, 46, 48, 53, 62, 64-65, 71, 73-77, 79-81

Fortress of God 60, 65

fortune 67; misfortune 60; fortunately 81; unfortunately 8

friction 2-3, 18-19, 21, 29, 34-35, 39-40, 45-46, 48-49, 51-53, 55, 57, 59, 65, 73-76, 82;

frictional 55, 59, 77; frictionless 3, 46, 58-59

friend(s) 7, 42, 61-62, 77; friendship 62

gear(ing) 20, 49, 67, 74

gentle 17, 37, 42; gently 30, 34, 36-38, 40, 42, 45, 49, 53, 65, 68, 76

German 22, 25-28, 69, 72, 82; Germanic 24, 65-66, 69; Germany 15, 63, 80, 84

God 3-4, 12, 20-21, 23, 28-29, 31, 38-43, 59-61-62, 65, 68-71, 74-75, 77, 79-81, 83

gold 8, 10, 36, 40, 54, 58-59, 63, 76

good 5, 8, 19, 22, 29, 40-41, 62, 67, 71, 77, 80-81, 83

gospel 6, 81-82

grace, ungracefully 81

gravitate 42, 71; gravitation 17-18, 87; gravitational 3, 10, 17-18, 53, 56, 78-79, 87-88

graviton(s) 2-3, 17, 45, 52-53, 56, 58, 63-64, 75, 77-78, 80

gravity 2-5, 9-10, 16-18, 30, 32, 35, 38-41, 52, 56, 60, 78-80, 87-88

ground 9-10, 16, 30, 34, 36, 46, 55

ground state(s) 3, 13-14, 53, 63-64, 76, 80

hearken 29, 81; deaf 18

Hertz, Heinrich, Hertzian 64

The Holy Bible 2, 6-7, 21-22, 24, 26, 82, 85-86, 89

Holy Ghost 40-42, 61

hot fusion, thermo-nuclear fusion 4, 79-80, 89

illusion 7

Infinite Energy 4, 7, 14-15, 20, 81, 84, 87, 89

Israel 23

Jehovah 40

Jesus Christ 6, 22, 28, 31, 40, 42, 60-61, 81

Jupiter 26, 41, 47

Kae-e-vanrash 18, 79

Kawai, Teruo 15, 75, 88

Kern, California 64, 85

kingdom(s) 6, 26-27, 38-39, 68, 84

Kli-flos-is-es, Hah-ko-kau-beam 18

Kolob 79

large(r) wheel 18-19, 21, 27, 30-31, 33, 37-41, 44, 49-50-53, 55-58, 73, 82

light(er, est) 3, 8, 10, 14, 17, 20, 34-35, 37, 39, 43-44, 46-47, 56, 62, 78-79-80

little book 1-2, 4-5, 21-22-24, 26-27-28-29, 35, 39, 42-44, 46-47, 50, 52-53, 57-58, 62, 68-72, 76-77, 81

living Christ 86

load(ed, s) 3, 21, 34, 36-37, 45, 47-49, 65, 76; downloads 6

lubrication 34, 36, 45, 49, 58-59, 64; (un)lubricate(d) 2, 48, 64

Lucifer 62

Luther, Martin 28, 82, 85

Lutheran 12

Mallove, Eugene F., Dr. 14, 84, 87

Marinov motor 15, 64, 88

married 12, 54

Mars 26, 41, 47

math, mathematical, mathematics 3, 9-10, 12, 48, 57-58, 65, 77-78, 82-83

Maxwell, James C. 64

Maxwell, Neal A. 71

Mayan 25, 67, 86

Meadows, Steven 15, 81

Mercury, mercury 39-41

Methodist 9, 12

Miles, Melvin H., Dr. 12, 14, 28, 82, 86-87

money 8, 11, 16, 32, 65, 76

Moon, moon 40-41

mother 8-9; grandmother 63

move(d) 18, 34, 36, 41, 52, 67, 77; movement(s) 17, 55, 73

music, musical 9, 27, 65, 83

naval 11; navy 11; sailor 8

New Mexico 4, 7, 9, 90

nuclear, nuclei, nucleon, nucleus 3, 5, 10-11, 13-14, 45, 52, 56-58, 63, 75, 77, 79, 82, 86-87, 89

numeral(s) 5, 28, 38, 65-69

Olmecs 67

Orffyre 20, 24, 48, 54

Orffyrean axle 33, 36

Orffyrean entities 49

Orffyrean "geared" 31, 35, 47, 48, 59, 67, 73, 76

Orffyrean mathematics 48

Orffyrean mechanics 39

Orffyrean pendulum 75

Orffyrean roller(s) 5, 35, 38, 41, 47, 49

Orffyrean roller bearing(s) 2, 4-5, 12, 31, 34-35-36, 41, 45, 47-53, 59, 64-65, 67, 75, 77-78, 80, 85

Orffyrean sleeve 2, 35-36, 41, 47-48

Orffyrean sleeve wheel(s) 2-3, 36, 47-48

Orffyrean sprocket holes 36

Orffyrean sprocket lobes, Orffyrean lobes 34, 36

Orffyrean sprocket wheel(s) 2, 34, 36, 38, 45-46-47-50, 69

Orffyrean variants 74

Orffyres 28, 43; Orffyreum 26; Orffyreus 1, 4, 15, 20, 22, 28, 48-49, 54, 56, 71, 73-74, 76, 84

over-unity, overunity 4-5, 15-16-17, 62, 70, 75, 78, 84, 88-89

Paine, Lindy A. 12, 82-83

parable 2, 5, 12, 22-23, 27-28-29, 42-44, 50, 52-53, 71-72, 77, 83

parallel(s) 25, 27, 30-32, 50-53, 57; parallelism 23-25, 27, 44, 81; Parallel axis theorem 57

Park, Alden E. 1-2, 7-8, 15, 83-86

Park, Christopher G. 14-15, 21, 46, 54, 59, 62, 64, 82-83, 85

Park, George E. 8

Park, Grace E. 82-83

Park, Harry F. 15, 81-82

Park, Jeannette K. 83

Park, Stanley R. 83

pendulum 3, 5-6, 8, 11, 15, 19-21, 30-31-32, 41, 44-45, 50, 52, 54-57, 80, 82

perpetual motion 1-2, 17-18, 29, 54, 61-62, 80, 82, 90

Perpetual Motion: An Ancient Mystery Solved? 1, 6, 15, 20, 81, 84-85

persecution(s) 5, 59-60-61, 74

perspective 2, 14, 16, 23, 46, 72

Phipps, Thomas E., Dr. 64, 84, 88

physical 1, 3-4, 17, 24, 27-28, 32, 39, 50, 60, 61, 74, 76, 78; physically 16, 42

physical pendulum 3, 15

physician 12; doctor 9, 12, 89-90; nurse12

physicist(s) 14, 16

physics 5, 9-12, 14, 17, 77-78, 82

pioneer(ing, s) 1, 61, 83

planet(s) 39, 41, 70; planetary 41, 47, 50

play(ed, er, ful, ing, s) 8, 34, 37, 40, 44, 46, 58, 70, 83

power(ed, ful, fully, ing, s) 1-4, 11, 15-16-17-18-20, 29-30, 32, 35, 38, 40, 42, 48, 53-54, 58, 58, 60, 62, 71, 73-74-80, 88

Presbyterian 8

Ranque 15, 19, 79, 89

recognize(d) 11, 28, 83

relative 4, 12-13, 33, 36, 43, 52, 56-58, 72; relatively 2, 12, 17; relativity 64

remove(d, s) 21-22, 44, 46-48, 52-53, 55-57, 70, 74, 77

review(ed, er, ers, ing, s) 1, 7, 9, 13, 15, 47, 56, 82-85, 87, 88

Ridgecrest, Kern, California 12-13, 69, 82, 85

roll(ed, ing, s) 2, 8, 18, 28, 31, 34, 36, 43, 45-46, 49, 52, 54, 58-59, 64-65

rub 35, 40; rubbing 36, 46, 49-50, 59, 64, 76

run away 19, 73-74

safe 50, 76; safely 34; safety 1, 54, 73, 80, 83; safety bicycle 20, 50

Satan 61-62

Saturn 21, 26, 41, 47

science(s) 1-2, 8, 14-15, 17, 21, 46, 49, 58, 60, 62, 64-65, 84-85, 88-89;

scientific 5, 7, 12, 14, 50, 64, 79-80; scientifically, 4, 14, 61, 75; scientist(s) 2, 76

scripture(s) 6, 18, 20-22, 28-29, 32, 43, 70-72, 79, 81

seer 26, 31-33, 44-45, 86; sees 22, 31, 33, 42; blind(ed, ing) 18, 28, 42, 75

semiconductor 76

silver 8, 10, 36, 40, 54, 58-59, 76

sleeve 54

small(er) wheel, little wheel 3, 18-20, 27, 30-31, 33-35, 37-38, 40-41, 50-53, 55-58, 73

Smith, Joseph, Jun. 5, 43, 56, 59-60-61, 82, 86, 88, 89

snow, snowflake(s) 21, 24, 26, 32-33, 47-49, 52, 64, 69-70, 78

Son, son 14-15, 21, 29, 32, 40-42, 54, 59-61, 63, 82

spin(s) 2-3, 13-14, 17, 20-21, 52, 56, 64, 71, 78; spinning 53, 78; spinoff 75; spinors 17

sprocket wheel(s) 3, 13, 20-21, 27, 49-50, 52, 72, 78

static 2, 9, 18-19, 30, 34, 36, 41, 45-46, 49, 52-53, 65, 76, 79

stress(es) 36, 47-49, 72

Sun, sun 4-5, 39-40, 75, 79-80, 88; sunspots 79-80

superconductor(s) 53, 78-79

swastika 67, 80

symbol(s) 2, 23-24, 28-29, 65-67, 80-81, 83; symbolism 4, 22-23, 28, 44, 81

Takahashi, Yasunori 16, 18, 75, 84, 89

thought(s) 1-2, 4-5, 8-11, 13, 18-19, 21, 24, 26, 34-35, 39-40, 42-43, 49-50, 54-56, 60, 63, 68, 70-71, 74, 82, 85-86

thrifty 8, 29, 80

torque governor wheel, middle size wheel 2-3, 5, 21, 24, 27, 30-31-32-33-34-35-36-37-41, 44, 51-59, 67, 73-76

training 7-8, 22, 44

Turpin, Vera A. 8-9

type(s) 11, 18, 21, 23, 38, 41, 44, 46-47-49, 51, 58, 68, 72; typifying 43; prototype(s) 15, 21, 35, 40, 81-82

United States, U.S.A., U.S. 6-7, 11, 15, 61-62, 85-88, 90

up 3, 8-9, 11, 15, 18-20, 24, 25, 29-32, 34, 36-38, 40-42, 44, 49, 54-55, 58-59, 61-62, 65, 70, 72, 76, 82-83

USPTO 15, 62, 76, 88, 90

Venus 39-40

view(ed, ing, s) 7-8, 10, 13, 23-25, 28-31-32, 34, 37-39, 41, 46, 53, 64, 67, 72, 79;

viewpoint(s) 37, 43-44, 74; overview 27, 72

vision 29, 31, 38, 60-61

wheel(s) 8, 13, 18, 20-21, 26, 28, 36, 38-39, 42, 70, 72, 76, 88

wheel-pendulum 3, 5, 13, 20, 24, 27, 38, 42, 57-58, 72

Wilkins, Lowell H., Dr. 12, 82

wind 1, 20, 26-27, 34-35, 38, 45, 54, 67, 70

work(ed, ing, s) 2-4, 6-8, 10-12, 16, 18, 20, 23-24, 28-30, 33, 35, 38-39, 41-42, 44, 45, 47-48, 50, 52-54, 56, 58-64, 67-69, 71-76, 78-79, 81-82, 85-86

world 1, 5, 8, 12, 17, 27, 29-30, 42-43, 65, 70-71, 74-75, 77, 81, 87

yin-yang 4-5, 67, 80

Copy ______ given to ________________________ on ________________________.